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Community Resources and Reference Information

Most of us cannot do the job of raising our children alone. Your community has the resources to help you make that job easier. All cities have services designed especially for parents without partners.

  • Educational, social, health and human services agencies.
  • Preschools, nursery schools, church schools
  • Head Start, Home Start, Help Me Grow, Early Intervention, Association for the Education of Young Children (AEYC),
  • Parent education programs, cooperative extension services
  • Mental health centers, well-baby clinics, community colleges, home health care services
  • Counseling services, domestic relations court information and referral hotlines.Contact your child's librarian for resources that you might need.

This is valuable information for single moms or dads....parents without partners

Read interesting articles for parents without partners in parents magazine.

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Lindsey Hall and Leigh Cohn

The Dolphin's Dream
Donald Brooks Mason

Therapeutic Stories That Teach and Heal
Nancy David and Valerie Solarz

Raising Cain
Caring for Troubled Youngsters/Repairing Our Troubled System
Richard J. Delaney

Susan's Dictionary Of Resources Associated
With Childhood Disabilites and Illnesses

Abuse and Neglect

Abuse and Neglect is a condition of physical harm, sexual molestation, child neglect, or emotional maltreatment

United States:
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
1935 K Street N.W. Suite 700
Washington, D.C. 20006
202-635-9821 National Committee for Prevention and Child Abuse
332 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 950
Chicago, IL 60604


AIDS is a disease that is caused by a virus commonly referred to as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The virus attacks the body's immune system and leaves the individual vulnerable to infections or cancers. The majority of children with AIDS have been born with it. Most of these children, as of this writing, do not live long enough or are not well enough to attend school.

United States:
Immune Deficiency Foundation
P. O. Box 586
Columbia, Maryland 21045
301-461-3127 World Hemophilia AIDS Center
2400 South Flower Street
Los Angeles, CA 90007


Allergies are abnormal reactions to certain substances called allergens. They can be severe or mild. The tendency to be allergic is frequently inherited. A child may or may not be prediagnosed when she comes to your center.

United States:
Allergy Foundation of America
801 Second Avenue
New York, NY 10017 Asthma and Allergy Foundation
19 West 44th Street
New York, NY 10036


Juvenile Arthritis is a noncontagious condition that causes swelling or inflammation of the joint linings, resulting in pain in one or more joints. It is exhibited in a number of different ways. However, there are some basic characteristics that are usually evident in one form or another in all types.

United States:
Arthritis Foundation
1314 Spring Street N.W.
Atlanta, GA 30309


Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that, at times, causes a narrowing of the bronchial tubes and the formation of mucus. An allergic reaction results when the bronchial mucous membrane becomes irritated due to an inhaled or absorbed irritant, such as insect bites, bee stings, food or a virus.

Asthma and Allergy Foundation
19 West 44th Street
New York, NY 10036

Attention Deficit Disorder

An Attention Deficit Disorder is characterized by an impairment which interferes with the ability of the child to attend to a stimulus long enough to accomplish a task or receive information. The child may exhibit hyperactive or hypoactive behaviors. The onset is during the early years. Symptoms may persist into adulthood or may disappear at puberty.

United States:
Council for Behavioral Disorders
Council for Exceptional Children
1920 Association Drive
Reston, VA 22091


Autism and related conditions are characterized by the absence or severe impairment of two-way verbal or nonverbal social interaction, and an inability to use imagination. Activities are dominated by repetitive and stereotyped actions and routines.

United States:
National Society for Children and Adults with Autism
1234 Massachusetts Ave., N.W.
Suite 1017
Washington, D.C. 20005

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy is a condition characterized by involuntary movement of the muscles of the arms, legs, face, neck, as well as spasticity. This condition is usually caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain, resulting in permanent brain damage. There are also other causes of brain damage, such as car accidents, that result in conditions resembling cerebral palsy. The damage usually occurs during the pregnancy, immediately before birth, or during birth. Not all the symptoms may show until the child is about 18 months of age, after which time this condition is nonprogressive. At times there may also be problems in speech, swallowing, vision, hearing, and/or perception.

United States:
Dental Guidance Council/United Cerebral Palsy
122 East 23rd Street
New York, NY 10010 March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605

National Association for Physically Handicapped
76 Elm Street
London, OH 43140

National Ataxia Foundation
6681 Country Club Drive
Minneapolis, MN 55427

Cleft Lip and Palate

Cleft Lip and/or Palate results from an incomplete fusion of the lip and/or hard and/or soft palate in the roof of the mouth. This condition occurs during the first 8 to 10 weeks of pregnancy, thus the condition is present at the time of the baby's birth. Aside from these stated problems, the child is usually physically and intellectually normal.

United States:
American Cleft Palate Educational Foundation
National Office:
331 Salk Hall
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
412-624-0625 National Cleft Palate Association
P. O. Box 2647
Hutchinson, KS 67501

Prescription Parents
P. O. Box 426
Quincy, MA 02269

Curvature of the Spine

Three types of spinal curvature are noticeable in childhood: scoliosis, lordosis and congenital spine abnormalities. Scoliosis refers to a curvature of the spine in which the normally straight vertical line of the spine is curbed sideways. Scoliosis begins in childhood or adolescence and becomes progressively more pronounced until full growth is reached.

Lordosis refers to abnormally pronounced curvature of the spine. Observable symptoms include the curved back and pronounced buttocks.

Congenital abnormalties of the spoine may be noted first when one shoulder or hip seems higher than the other and/or when one leg appears shorter than the other, often affecting overall posture.

United States:
National Scoliosis Foundation, Inc.
P. O. Box 547
93 Concord Ave.
Belmont, MA 12178
617-489-0888 Scoliosis Association, Inc.
P. O. bos 194
Manhasset, NY 11030

Behavioral Social Emotional Problems

Behavioral/Social/Emotional Problems disorders are characterized by a difference from the "norm" in the amount and intensity of the exhibited reaction. If a child exhibits too much or too little of a behavior or emotion, she may be seen as having a behavioral problem. It may also be considered a problem if a child exhibits a behavior that is inappropriate to a setting.

United States:
American Association of Psychiatric Clinics for Children
250 West 57th Street, Rm. 1032
New York, NY 10019 Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders
Council for Exceptional Children
1920 Association Drive
Reston, VA 22091

Head Start - Administration for Child, Youth, Families
U. S. Dept. of Health & Human Services
P. O. Box 1182
Washington, D.C. 20013

National Mental Health Association
1800 North Kent Street
Arlington, VA 22209

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis is a heredity, chronic disorder which causes severe respiratory and digestive problems. The mucous glands in the lungs or the digestive system produce abnormally thick, gluey mucus that may clog the breathing tubes. The pancreas and liver are often affected.

United States:
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation
6000 Executive Boulevard
Rockville, Maryland 20852
310-881-9130 International Cystic Fibrosis Association
3657 East 49th Street
Cleveland, OH 44015

Diabetes (Juvenile Diabetes)

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the body's inability to process sugar normally. This leads to high glucose levels in the blood and urine. Frequently, diabetes is found in other members of the family.

United States:
American Diabetes Association
2 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016
Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International
60 Madison Ave., 4th Floor
New York, NY 10010


Epilepsy is not a disease. It is a sign or symptom of a structural or chemical disorder which occasionally produces sudden electrical discharges within the brain that may cause seizures. Seizures can range from severe to minimal and are exhibited in many different ways. The petit form of epilepsy often goes unrecognized and the preschool center may be the first place to recognize that a child has this disorder.

United States:
Epilepsy Foundation of America
Director of Information and Education
4351 Garden City Drive
Landover, Maryland 20785


A Gifted child is one who has a superior degree of general intellectual ability.

United States:
Council for Exceptional Children, Gifted Division
1920 Association Drive
Reston, VA 22091 National Association for Gifted Children
217 Gregory Drive
Hot Springs, Arkansas 71901

Community Resources

Book Reference List

Community College Day Care Centers

Church Affiliated Child Care Programs

Resource and Referral Hotlines listed under Education, Health and Social Services

The United Way

Starting Point

County Early Intervention Groups

State Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Development Centers

Local Board of Education that coordinate county wide activities in public schools

Local libraries that offer books and videos on parenting

Parents Without Partners

Helpful information can also found in Parents Magazine

Stepping Stones Mental Health Information

The Mission of Stepping Stones Educational Consulting is to improve the life outcomes and quality of life for children with mental illness via achieving academic success.

The Vision of Stepping Stones Educational Consulting is to be the first choice in advocacy and mental health educational consulting services for the family, education, and mental health communities by providing knowledgeable, compassionate, timely, and practical services.

Resource Information

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Tisak, Marie S.; Crane-Ross, Dushka; Tisak, John; & Maynard, Amanda M. (2000). Mothers’ and teachers’ home and school rules: Young children’s conceptions of authority in context. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, 168-187.

Howes, Carrollee. (2000). Social-emotional classroom climate in child care, child-teacher relationships and children’s 2nd grade peer relations. Social Development, 9, 191-204.

Essau, Cecilia A.; Conradt, Judith; & Petermann, Franz. (2000). Frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 470-481.

Field, Tiffany M.; Pickens, Jeffrey; Prodromidis, Margarita; Malphurs, Julie; Fox, Nathan; Bendell, Debra; Yando, Regina; Schanberg, Saul; & Kuhn, Cynthia. (2000). Targeting adolescent mothers with depressive symptoms for early intervention. Adolescence, 35, 381-414.

Ponterotto, H.G. (1996). Multicultural counseling in the twenty-first century. The Counceling Psychologist, 24(2), 259-268.

McCollum, J.A.,& Yates, T.J. (1994). Dyad as focus, triad as means: A family-orientated approach to supporting parent-child interactions. Infants and Young Children, 6(4), 54-63.

Wesley, P.W., &Buysse, V. (1997). Community-based approaches to personnel preparation. In P.J. Winton, J.A. McCullum, & C. Catlett (Eds.), Reforming personnel preparation in early intervention (pp. 53-80). Baltimore Books.

Clare, Lindsay; & Garnier, Helen. (2000). Parents’ goal for adolescents diagnosed with developmental delays in early childhood. Journal of Early Adolescence, 20, 442-466.

Labrell, F.; Deleau, M.; & Juhel, J. (2000). Fathers’ and mothers’ distancing strategies towards toddlers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 356-361.

Bosman, Anna M. T.; van Leerdam, Martin; & de Gelder, Beatrice. (2000). The /O/ in OVER is different from the /O/ in OTTER: Phonological effects in children with and without dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 36, 817-825.

Harvey, Megan; & Byrd, Mark. (2000). Relationships between adolescents’ attachment styles and family functioning. Adolescence, 35, 345-356.

McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; & von Eye, Alexaner. (2000). Adolescent-peer discrepancies in perceptions of family functioning and early adolescent self-competence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 362-372.

Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; & Pianta, Robert C. (1999). Patterns of family-school contact in preschool and kindergarten. School Psychology Review, 28, 426-438.

Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Mesibov, Gary; Ament, Nicole; & skinner, Martie. (2000). Early development, temperament, and functional impairment in autism and fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 49-59.

Schwartz, David: Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; & Bates, John E. (2000). Friendship as a moderating factor in the pathway between early harsh home environment and later victimization in the peer group. Developmental Psychology, 36, 646-662.

Dunn, Judy; Cutting, Alexandra L.; & Demetriou, Helen. (2000). Moral sensibility, understanding others, and children’s friendship interactions in the preschool period. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18, 159-177.

Enomoto, Junko. (2000) Friendship among adolescents: Needs and their relation to emotions and attitudes. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 48, 444-453.

Terrell, Francis; Terrell, Ivanna S.; & Von Drashek, Susan R. (2001). Loneliness and fear of intimacy among adolescents who were taught not to trust strangers during childhood. Adolescence, 35, 611-617.

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