Developmental Disabilities

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Vision/Hearing

Oregon Checklist

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The Oregon Project

For Visually Impaired & Blind Preschool Children

Skills Inventory

Cognitive

Birth - 1 Year

  • alerts to daily tactual/visual/auditory/movement stimulation
  • bats at toys suspended above crib in order to see or hear something interesting
  • touches new objects inquisitively
  • plays with own hands or feet
  • anticipates some familiar daily events based on sensory cues
  • combines three or more behaviors when exploring a toy (e.g., shakes, mouths, pats)
  • indicates desire to continue a familiar activity shared with adult by movement and/or vocalization
  • puts down one object deliberately to reach for another
  • plays with toys by taking advantage of the best characteristics of each: rolls ball, shakes bell, crumples paper
  • removes object from container by reaching inside
  • moves (scoots or crawls) to obtain object when given a visual or auditory clue
  • puts one object into another (discovers the concept of containers)

 

1- 2 Years

  • puts many objects into a container before removing any
  • opens container with lid to find sound-maker (ticking clock, music box)
  • touches 1-3 body parts on request (e.g., nose, mouth, tummy)
  • shows anticipation of events when verbal cue is provided (hears “let’s go outside” and goes to coat closet)
  • shows preference in choice of toys
  • shows curiosity about a new toy
  • demonstrates concept of up/down by moving self or object (“put the spoon down” or “hold your hand up high”)
  • gives or touches 5 specific objects on request
  • explores cabinets and drawers in own home
  • selects, from group of 3, object identical to given object (eg., shoes, spoons, cups)

 

2 -3 Years

  • demonstrates simple problem-solving (eg., uses tool to obtain object which is out of reach)
  • demonstrates the use of familiar objects on request (hairbrush, crayon)
  • matches big/little objects (identical in every other way)
  • finds/touches big/little objects on request
  • matches shapes (circle, square, triangle)
  • understands and gives “just one”
  • finds object when function is described (“show me the one you brush your teeth with”)
  • demonstrates the concept of two
  • touches smaller body parts (fingers, thumb, toes) on request
  • touches body part when function is described (“show me what you hear with”)
  • tells age verbally, or holds up fingers
  • names 2-3 familiar musical toys and instruments by their sound
  • names one color when asked (names, not recognizes or matches)
  • sorts 3 kinds of dissimilar objects
  • sorts similar objects by size, shape, or color

 

3 - 4 Years

  • names 10 body parts
  • turns to face an object/person on request
  • touches top, bottom, front, back, and sides of an object on request
  • identifies common environmental features indoors/outdoors (chairs, stairs, door, window, sidewalk, lawn)
  • names object not present when function is described
  • matches sound containers (beans, rice, marbles)
  • names objects as same/different
  • tells which objects go together (shoes/socks, spoon/plate)
  • touches 3 named shapes on request (circle, square, triangle)
  • names shapes
  • arranges 3 items horizontally in order by size
  • tells if object is heavy or light
  • tells if object is long or short
  • matches 1:1 (1 plate, 1 napkin, 1 child, 1 cookie)
  • tells how many objects in a set (1-3) after counting
  • matches simple sequence or pattern of 5 blocks, beads or pegs

 

4 - 5 Years

  • tells own age
  • comprehends concepts of today, last night, yesterday, tomorrow when discussed with adult
  • identifies weather as rainy, sunny, snowy, warm, cold
  • tells whether sound is loud/soft, high/low, long/short
  • touches own complex body parts on request (wrist, shoulder, ankle, waist)
  • moves body planes in relation to flat surface (“put your back against the wall”)
  • touches and names left/right on own body
  • places objects over/above, under/below, upon/inside, through, and away from other objects on request
  • sorts similar household objects (silverware, clothing)
  • arranges objects into at least 3 groups (things to eat, wear, or play with)
  • identifies picture/object which does not belong in group
  • identifies objects as long/short, hard/soft, rough/smooth
  • places 5 objects in horizontal arrangement by size
  • rote counts to 10
  • counts objects from 1-10
  • gives no objects when asked for zero
  • touches first, middle, last items in a row
  • finds matching symbol (printed/raised outline) of geometric shapes
  • tells whether 2 symbols are the same or different
  • recognizes own name in print or braille
  • puts 5 objects in pattern from memory (using alternating colors or shapes)

 

5 - 6 Years

  • states full name, address, and phone number
  • states full name of at least one parent
  • states month and date of own birthday
  • names 10 colors (“tell me all the colors you know”) item does not require vision
  • identifies penny, nickel, dime
  • names days of the week in order
  • answers which is longer, a minute or an hour?  A day or a week?
  • places objects across from, next to, beside, behind, in front of, to the side, left and right of self on request
  • places objects across from, next to, beside, behind, in front of, to the side, left and right of other objects facing in the same direction of self
  • arranges 4-5 objects in sequence by length, width, or height
  • identifies half and whole objects
  • creates sets of objects of up to 5
  • names numerals 1 to 10 when presented
  • matches numerals with same quantity of objects, 1 to 10
  • names ordinal position of objects (first, second, third)
  • names numerals 11 to 20 when presented
  • write numerals (print or braille) 1 to 20 in proper sequence
  • rote counts to 100
  • identifies sets containing more/less
  • using real objects, adds and subtracts combinations up to 3
  • states letters of the alphabet in order
  • finds symbol that is different in a line of like symbols
  • reads own first and last name
  • identifies letters of the alphabet when presented (upper case, lower case, upper/lower mixed)
  • reads 5-10 simple words
  • names object beginning with given consonant sound
  • gives consonant sound of selected letters
  • copies upper and lower case letters from flashcards (print or braille)
  • copies two short words
  • writes letters from dictation (upper and lower case)

 

Language

 

Birth - 1 Year

  • has separate cry for different discomforts (hungry, wet, or tired)
  • responds pleasurably to sound of human voice
  • coos and gurgles
  • repeats own sound
  • imitates a familiar babbling sound
  • repeats same syllable 2-3 times (ma ma ma)
  • responds to simple phrases with specific non-verbal response (“want a drink?” and child turns head away; “let’s go for a ride:, child gets excited)
  • combines two different syllables in vocal play (da-dee, or ma-mee)
  • vocalizes to gain attention
  • imitates vocal intonation patterns of others
  • uses single word appropriately (hot or cookie)
  • vocalizes 5 or more syllables in response to speech of another person
  • follows simple verbal direction accompanied by gestures or physical cue (“give me your hands”)

 

1 - 2 Years

  • says 5 different words
  • combines use of words and gestures to make wants known
  • uses one-word sentences as requests (“drink” or “water”)
  • asks for more in 3 appropriate situations
  • follows 3 different one-step directions given without gestures
  • names familiar objects, people, pets, when asked
  • asks for common food items by name (milk, cookie, cracker)
  • asks questions using a rising intonation at end of word or phrase
  • answers “yes” or “no” when asked a question
  • names parts of own face: ear, nose, mouth, eye, cheek

 

2 - 3 Years

  • repeats a series of two digits or words in same order
  • uses word for bathroom need
  • names 2-3 animals, 2-3 items of clothing
  • follows directions involving personal pronouns (“give it to her”)
  • combines two words to express request (“drink water”)
  • tells own current activity (“eat cookie”, “go potty”)
  • combines two words to express possession (“daddy car”)
  • gives more than one object when asked using plural form (blocks)
  • names 10 objects or places (kitchen, sink, porch)
  • articulates words beginning with the following consonants; p, b, m, h, w, n
  • responds to two-part simple request (“pick up your blocks and put them in the toy box”)
  • responds to questions using ‘ing’ verb form (running)
  • uses regular plural forms (book/books)
  • asks questions beginning with ‘what’, ‘where’, or ‘when’
  • controls voice volume (whispers or uses loud voice)
  • speaks in three-word sentences
  • uses ‘I’, ‘me’, ‘mine’, rather than own name
  • articulates words beginning with these consonants: k, g, t, d
  • responds to “who” questions
  • uses ‘is’ in statements (“this is a ball”)
  • uses possessive forms of nouns (daddy’s)
  • occasionally uses articles ‘the’ and ‘a’

 

3 - 4 Years

  • uses relative pronouns: that, this, these, those
  • uses some adverbs (fast, now, too)
  • uses open or closed as descriptors (“the door is closed”)
  • uses some irregular past tense forms consistently (did, went, was)
  • uses ‘is’ at the beginning of questions appropriately
  • repeats simple rhymes, songs, and fingerplays with words and actions
  • tells first and last name when requested
  • uses personal pronouns: he, she, it, they, you
  • repeats a series of 3 digits or words in same order
  • uses 3 descriptive words appropriately when presented with objects (sticky, bumpy)
  • uses regular passt tense forms (jumped)
  • tells about personal state (hungry, thirsty, tired)
  • expresses future occurrences with “going to”, “have to”, and “will”
  • tells function of common objects (“what do you do with a spoon?”  “You eat with it”)
  • answers simple “how” questions (“how do you go to a store?”  “In a car”)
  • uses 3 common irregular plurals (men, feet, children)
  • tells two events in order of occurence

 

4 - 5 Years

  • tells function of mouth, nose, eyes, ears, legs, feet
  • answers “where” questions with prepositional phrases using ‘in’, ‘on’, and ‘under’ (in the cup, under the table)
  • uses ‘not’ to show negation (“this is not a pencil”)
  • uses contractions (can’t, don’t, won’t)
  • speaks in well-structured 4-, 5-, and 6-word sentences (“daddy drove the car to town”)
  • carries out a series of 3 directions in correct sequence
  • uses possessive pronouns: his, hers, theirs, its, yours
  • uses ‘could’ and ‘would’ in speech
  • tells what to do when sick, cold, hungry, etc.
  • uses compound sentences
  • uses ‘sister, brother, grandmother, grandfather’ to identify family members
  • tells familiar story in own words (without pictures for clues)
  • tells if 2 words sound the same or not the same (car-car, dog-banana)
  • tells whether or not 2 words rhyme
  • tells which of 3 words does not belong (banana, apple, car)
  • repeats 5 rhymes, songs, and fingerplays for others

 

5 - 6 Years

  • uses complex sentences (“he wants to come in because...)
  • uses quantitative words (many, few, some, most, least)
  • changes word order appropriately to ask questions
  • answers why questions with explanation
  • asks meaning of new or unfamiliar words
  • uses time words (yesterday, last night, tomorrow)
  • completes simple analogies (summer is hot, winter is ______ )
  • describes similarities/differences in objects (coat and shoe, potato and rock, tree and flower)
  • names objects which belong to a certain class; begins to use class names (toys, food, animals)
  • tells activities associated with seasons of the year
  • predicts what will happen next in familiar story
  • answers 3 questions about a short story
  • retells an original story in correct sequence
  • tells an original story lasting 1-2 minutes
  • repeats familiar jokes
  • tells 3 words which rhyme with a given word
  • plays verbal reasoning game (“I’m thinking of something...)
  • explains rules of simple board or card games to others
  •  

Socialization

 

Birth - 1 Year

  • cuddles or snuggles when held by familiar person
  • shows recognition of family member’s voices by vocalizing, smiling or ceasing to cry
  • pats or pulls at adult features
  • reaches for familiar person when spoken to
  • occupies self without crying for 10 minutes (adult in same room)
  • shows response to own name
  • plays unattended for 10 minutes (adult in different room)
  • plays 2 interactive games (peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake)
  • hugs or kisses familiar persons
  • directs vocalization to people and toys
  • momentarily upset when parents leave, but soon resumes activities
  • plays independently beside another child
  • repeats actions which get laughter and attention
  • participates in finger plays with adult
  • attempts simple chore (carries plastic dish, helps put toy away)
  • takes part in simple game with another child or adult (rolling ball, pushing cars)
  • initiates own play activities
  • begins to enjoy book/story time with adult
  • pulls at another person to gain attention
  • waits up to 5 minutes for needs to be met (in high chair, car, etc.)
  • shares object/food with one other child when requested

 

2 - 3 Years

  • plays with 2-3 peers with adult supervision
  • pets and interacts with 2-3 different animals
  • shows awareness of routine by preparing for next activity without reminder (goes to table at lunch)
  • spontaneously joins in when familiar song or rhyme is heard
  • attempts to help adult with more complicated tasks (holds dustpan, wipes table)
  • enjoys hearing familiar stories repeated; tries to participate in story telling
  • says “please “ when reminded
  • greets familiar people without reminder
  • becomes aware of sex difference

 

3 - 4 Years

  • attends to stories or poems for 5 minutes
  • holds another child’s hand while walking
  • follows rules in games led by adult
  • says “thank you” when reminded
  • plays near and talks with other children (may be mostly involved in solitary activity)
  • takes turns with 2-3 children
  • cooperates with adult request most of the time
  • copies adult activities (pretends to cook or mow the lawn)
  • identifies self as boy or girl
  • identifies own personal possession
  • engages in imaginative play with other children
  • begins to prefer children to adults

 

4 - 5 Years

  • works alone at desired activity for 15-20 minutes
  • adapts to changes in routine/environment (sleeps in different bed without fuss)
  • seeks and accepts help when needed
  • faces person with whom s/he is speaking
  • waits up to 15 minutes for needs to be met
  • begins to participate in group conversations
  • tells roles of family members (mother is a doctor, brothers go to school)
  • occasionally says “please”, “thank you”, “excuse me” or “I’m sorry” without reminder
  • listens to and follows directions given to group as a whole

 

5 - 6 Years

  • asks permission to play with another child’s toy
  • responds to verbal reasoning
  • contributes own ideas to family or peer discussions
  • cooperates with 2-5 children in simple project
  • participates in simple board or card games
  • selects own playmates
  • comforts playmates in distress
  • moves to appropriate area in classroom and finds an empty place (on the rug, at the table)
  • explains relationship of family members (uncle Bob is daddy’s brother)
  • practices some good health habits which have been taught
  • answers telephone; calls for adult or talks to familiar person
  • remains silent at appropriate times (when someone is talking)

 

Vision

 

Birth - 1 Year

  • stares at source of light
  • visually begins to explore surroundings; momentarily focus (5-10 sec.) on variety of objects
  • visually shifts attention between 2 objects
  • regards own hands
  • tracks objects moving horizontally and vertically
  • has visually-directed reach and grasp
  • visually examines objects held in own hand
  • rescues toy dropped within reach
  • while sitting, tracks a toy moving across the table
  • turns to look for objects out of view
  • looks after toys which fall to the floor when child is sitting in chair
  • removes cover toy obtain toy which was hidden
  • responds appropriately to familiar gestures of adult

 

1 - 2 Years

  • interested in pictures in books and turns books right side up
  • interested in things which roll: balls, cars
  • reaches or moves behind barrier to obtain toy
  • inverts bottle to obtain raisin inside
  • matches real objects to picture (may be identical)
  • matches 5 objects to picture (not quite identical)
  • interested in marking paper with crayons/markers
  • imitates isolated marks and circular motion with crayon/marker
  • momentarily interested in T.V.
  • visually searches for missing object or person

 

2 - 3 Years

  • stacks 8-9 small cubes
  • points to pictures representing named action
  • locates a requested picture in a familiar book
  • imitates adult making vertical and horizontal lines with a pencil/crayon
  • imitates circle with pencil or crayon
  • matches colors (red, yellow, blue, black, white)
  • assembles 2 halves of cut-out cardboard circle to make whole
  • matches similar pictures (colored, realistic drawings or photos)
  • paints with brush; lines, dots, circular shapes
  • imitates V-stroke and H-stroke

 

3 - 4 Years

  • names pictures as same/different
  • names or describes simple action pictures
  • names 3 colors when shown samples
  • matches a solid shape to a picture of a shape
  • points to detail in picture of several objects
  • identifies missing arm or leg in picture of person
  • assembles simple wooden puzzle of 3-5 pieces which touch and form one entire picture
  • builds 3-piece bridge with blocks
  • imitates adult drawing these shapes; + , O , V, H, T
  • traces over shape outline with crayon
  • copies shapes (child has not seen them being made); + , O , V, H, T

 

4 - 5 Years

  • names 5 colors when shown samples
  • recalls 4 objects in seen in a picture book
  • tells what is missing from a group of 5 objects
  • points to pictures in left-to-right, top-to-bottom sequence
  • names missing part of picture or object
  • draws a person with at least 2 body parts
  • colors within the lines
  • cuts out 2" triangle, 6" square
  • completes inset puzzle of 6-10 pieces which touch and form one entire picture
  • completes puzzle of 4-6 interlocking pieces
  • arranges 3 pictures in story sequence
  • draws a diagonal line from corner to corner
  • copies first name

 

5 - 6 Years

  • completes puzzle of 10-12 interlocking pieces
  • recognizes pictures which differ by size or spatial position
  • locates specific shape or detail in picture
  • locates a “hidden”object in a picture (figure/ground)
  • copies peg pattern from picture pattern
  • adds missing parts to familiar pictures
  • draws person with 6 parts; house with 3 parts
  • paints recognizable pictures
  • copies triangle
  • draws shapes, letters, and numbers positioned correctly
  • makes sequence of letters/numbers on worksheet in left-to-right sequence
  • cuts along a curved line
  • cuts out a simply drawn picture

 

Compensatory

 

Birth - 1 Year

  • explores textured surfaces by moving own hands and/or feet over them
  • plays (splashes) in water
  • plays with a variety of textured toys
  • searches for and finds object which s/he dropped (object is still in contact with child’s body)
  • when part of familiar object touches hand, child recognizes and reaches for complete object
  • searches for and finds object which child has dropped when object does not touch body, but continues to make noise
  • reacts to tactile stimulation of arm or leg by moving only the stimulated limb
  • reaches accurately in any direction to obtain noisy toy which has not yet been in child’s grasp
  • attempts to search for toy which falls out of contact with body when toy no continuous sound
  • explores food with fingers (oatmal, rice, pudding)
  • participates in messy activities (fingerpaint, sand)
  • independently moves about in familiar room; may or may not explore inquisitively
  • walks barefoot in grass and variety of surfaces
  • maintains contact with container while searching for objects to place inside
  • after hand-over-hand demonstration, imitates an appropriate motion usually acquired by visual imitation (rolls car on floor, stacks objects)

 

2 - 3 Years

  • identifies familiar objects, toys, foods
  • identifies an object by its sound
  • interested in books with textures or moveable parts
  • matches textures (finds the same kind when given a choice of 2-3)
  • independently explores familiar rooms in own home
  • knows the arrangement of furniture, doors, stairs within own home
  • maintains sustained search for dropped toy

 

3 - 4 Years

  • tactually discriminates among items with similar characteristics (child’s own hairbrush from mom’s)
  • identifies activities by sound (closing door, washing dishes) and smell (bakery, gas station) in the home/neighborhood
  • understands where things belong within own home (toys in bedroom, food in kitchen)
  • moves to destination quickly and easily within own home
  • locates favorite play areas in own yard (swing, sandbox)
  • assembles two parts of shape to make whole (may be wooden formboard)
  • sorts 2 kinds of tactually dissimilar objects (nuts from bolts, macaroni from dried peas)
  • explores home-made tactual books with real objects, textures, shapes

 

4 - 5 Years

  • identifies location of sound as front/back, left/right, near/far, in relationship to own body
  • faces activity when sitting or standing in group of children
  • uses auditory/olfactory/terrain cues to orient self outside of own home (preschool, grandma’s house)
  • locates dropped object in immediate vicinity of feet
  • sorts 2 kinds of similar objects which differ in only size or texture
  • matches fabric swatches (group of 4)
  • identifies 6 named textures/fabrics
  • tells what object is missing from group of 4
  • identifies raised-line shapes in tactual book
  • uses two hands t follow raised line of yarn or pipe cleaners on page in book
  • tracks from left to right across 1-2 braille lines
  • locates page with requested shape or item in familiar book
  • attempts to ‘read’ or follow along in braille book as adult reads aloud
  • completes teacher-directed task using pushpins, stickers, crayons, etc.

 

5 - 6 Years

  • can be oriented to new rooms with some instruction
  • moves to appropriate areas in classroom (where activity is happening) and finds an empty place with little or no assistance
  • demonstrates correct use of sighted-guide technique
  • inserts and removes cassette tape from tape player
  • controls ‘play’, ‘stop’, and ‘volume’ on tape player
  • inserts headset jack and puts headphones on head
  • finds beginning and end of braille line on page
  • tracks smoothly across three lines of double-spaced braille
  • tracks from top to bottom of 1-2 vertical lines
  • locates long and short raised lines (comparison)
  • locates, top, bottom, front, back, left, and right sides of page and book; locates corner of page where page numbers are found
  • inserts and removes paper in braille writer
  • pushes each embossing key separately and in combination with keys on braille writer
  • demonstrates use of all parts of braille writer
  • moves beads on an abacus for counting purposes
  • inserts computer disk into drive, turns on computer and monitor
  • plays simple computer game using space bar, return, and escape keys

 

 

Self-Help

 

Birth - 1 Year

  • sucks and swallows liquid
  • opens mouth for breast or bottle
  • swallows pureed food fed with a spoon
  • puts one or both hands on bottle while drinking
  • mouths blended or strained foods fed by spoon
  • holds bottle independently while lying on back
  • mouths and gums cookie or cracker
  • drinks from cup when adult holds it
  • bites off piece of food
  • feeds self with fingers
  • chews solid foods
  • eats 3 new foods of different textures
  • cooperates while being dressed: holds out arms and legs

 

1 - 2 Years

  • holds cup independently while drinking
  • feeds self with spoon, some spillage
  • chews well (meat, apples, cheese)
  • uses only one hand to hold and drink from cup; picks it up and replaces it on table neatly
  • locates and uses own cup, spoon, dish correctly
  • removes socks and hat independently
  • removes shoes when laces/straps are untied and loosened
  • removes coat and pants when unfastened
  • unzips zipper with minimal assistance
  • cooperates when face and hands are washed
  • sits on potty and occasionally urinates/defecates in it

 

2 - 3 Years

  • uses straw to sip liquid
  • holds spoon with adult grasp
  • pierces food with fork and brings to mouth
  • pulls pants up and down with assistance
  • takes off all clothing which has been unfastened
  • unsnaps clothing
  • puts on socks
  • puts on coat or front opening shirt
  • unbuttons large front buttons
  • unbuckles belt or shoes
  • zips engaged zipper on coat or sleeper
  • indicates wet or soiled pants
  • flushes toilet with reminder
  • has daytime control of bowel and bladder (may have occasional accident; may want or need assistance with clothing
  • washes hands with soap and water (needs assistance)
  • dries hands with towel
  • turns water faucet on and off
  • brushes teeth (with assistance)
  • helps bathe self
  • attempts to get own drink (from refrigerator, water dispenser, or tap)
  • avoids hazards when in familiar place (sharp corners, stairs, heaters)
  • delivers item to appropriate room when asked (“put your sweater away”)

 

3 - 4 Years

  • peels 3 foods (banana, orange, egg)
  • feeds self entire meal using spoon and fork
  • serves self finger foods from platter
  • orients clothing independently (front/back)
  • puts on pants and pullover shirt independently
  • fastens velcro straps (shoes, belts)
  • snaps own clothing
  • buttons own shirt or coat
  • places own dirty clothing in hamper or box
  • wakes from sleep during the night to use toilet; or stays dry all night
  • wipes and blows own nose when reminded

 

4 - 5 Years

  • clears place at table
  • cleans up spills, getting own cloth
  • helps set table
  • completes dressing/undressing independently (may still want or need minimal help with fasteners)
  • puts belt through loops and buckles own belt or shoes
  • puts coat on hanger and replaces hanger on bar
  • wipes self after toileting
  • completes toileting procedures correctly at home
  • puts toothpaste on own toothbrush and brushes teeth
  • combs/brushes own hair
  • hangs up washcloth/towel at home
  • uses paper towel dispenser in public washroom
  • bathes self
  • avoids known poisons (cleaners)

 

5 - 6 Years

  • regularly completes one task independently without adult supervision (may need reminder)
  • opens a variety of individual-serving sized drink containers (school milk, juice cans)
  • pours juice, milk, etc. with little or no spilling
  • cuts soft foods with knife; uses knife for spreading prepares simple foods for self (cold cereal, a snadwich)
  • uses simple condiments (squeezable ketchup containers, salt & pepper shakers)
  • passes and serves self food, using utensils
  • places shoes on correct feet
  • obtains own clothing from closet or drawer
  • folds simple clothing and puts it away in drawer
  • brushes teeth independently
  • adjusts water temperature in sink or tub; prepares own bath
  • makes own bed
  • picks up own toys
  • buckles own seat belt in car
  • locates drinking fountain and restroom in familiar public place (school, church, etc.)
  • uses dial or pushbutton phone to make a call
  • walks to familiar location within a block of home independently (neighbor’s home, playground)

 

 

Fine Motor

 

Birth - 1 Year

  • holds rattle with palmar grasp
  • brings toy to mouth; explores toys with mouth
  • shakes and pats objects with hands
  • bangs objects against a hard surface
  • puts both hands on a toy at midline
  • picks up a small, soft toy from flat surface
  • picks up small cube from table with thumb and 2 fingers
  • transfers object from one hand to the other
  • clasps hands
  • uses two hands on a toy to stretch, tear, crumple
  • isolates movements of one or two fingers: explores holes, pushes buttons or levers on toys
  • picks up raisins or piece of cereal with pincer grasp
  • begins to explore cardboard/soft plastic books

 

1 - 2 Years

  • manipulates objects with many moving parts (busy box)
  • removes rings from stack, large pegs from board
  • pulls apart pop-beads
  • turns pages of book several at a time
  • completes one-piece formboard
  • stacks 2-3 blocks
  • scribbles with crayon
  • puts at least 4 rings on post, 4 pegs in board
  • attempts to use mechanical means to activate a toy (pulls ring or turns knob of music box)
  • places 5-6 objects through small opening )hole in lid of bottle or box)
  • completes 3-piece formboard with circle, square, triangle
  • puts together 3-part nesting toy

 

2 - 3 Years

  • pounds pegs with hammer
  • strings large (one-inch) beads
  • rolls, pats, pounds, pinches clay ball
  • turns knobs on toys, T.V., stereo
  • unscrews threaded objects
  • turns pages of book one at a time
  • puts fitted lids on bowls or pans
  • unwraps small object
  • tears paper into two strips
  • pulls apart and puts together pop-beads or other snap-together toy
  • screws together threaded objects (nuts and bolts, lids on jars)
  • fingerpaints, making horizontal, vertical, and circular motions
  • holds pencil with thumb and fingers in adult grasp

 

3 - 4 Years

  • points in specific direction on request
  • isolates thumb movement (moves thumb without moving any other fingers)
  • puts together 4-part nesting toy
  • makes row of 5-6 pegs
  • strings small (half-inch) beads
  • snips scissors
  • pastes scraps of construction paper
  • traces around inside of template with pencil or crayon
  • assembles 6-piece wooden puzzle with separate place for each piece
  • opens doors, cabinets, drawers, windows with a variety of latches

 

4 - 5 Years

  • spreads fingers, touching thumb to each finger individually
  • screws on 1" lid (ketchup bottle)
  • wraps small object in paper or foil
  • forms simple shapes with clay (ball, snake, pancake)
  • builds with a variety of interlocking toys
  • laces sewing cards
  • uses pinch clothes pins to hang up artwork
  • folds and creases paper horizontally, vertically
  • pulls tape from dispenser and applies it to paper
  • cuts along 8" straight line (print or raised)

 

5 - 6 Years

  • forms a circle with thumb and pointer finger; with both hands; and with arms extended
  • shows appropriate number of fingers when asked for the numbers 0-10
  • creates simple things with clay (animals, baskets)
  • uses paste or glue dispensed in a variety of ways (squeeze bottle, glue stick)
  • uses pencil sharpener, stapler, eraser
  • opens and closes large safety pin; pins 2 pieces of cloth together
  • attaches 1 1/4" paper clip to paper
  • traces simple print or raised line maze with crayon
  • cuts out and pastes simple shapes
  • folds square (napkin, paper) on diagonal
  • hits nail with real hammer into soft wood

 

Gross Motor

 

Birth - 1 Year

  • moves head side to side, thrusts arms about, kicks vigorously while on back
  • holds head up while on stomach
  • holds head erect while being carried upright
  • rolls from stomach to back
  • bears weight on hands/forearms while on stomach, lifting head and chest off the floor
  • grasps adult’s fingers and pulls to sitting position
  • maintains sitting position with some support
  • rolls from back to stomach
  • sits self-supported for short periods
  • while sitting, extends arms to protect self from falling
  • moves into and out of sitting position independently
  • stands with minimum support adult
  • pulls to stand
  • assumes hands-and-knees crawling position
  • moves forward in space (creeps, crawls, scoots)
  • reaches with one hand from crawl (maintains 3-point balance)
  • steps sideways while holding on to stationary object
  • stands unsupported momentarily
  • lowers self from standing to sitting
  • walks with one hand held

 

1 - 2 Years

  • moves from sitting to free standing
  • takes a few steps without support
  • walks independently
  • walks around or over obstacles
  • walks up stairs holding on to adult’s hand or railing
  • squats and returns to standing
  • picks up toy from floor without falling
  • seats self in small chair
  • climbs into adult chair, turns and sits
  • rolls and tries to catch large ball
  • propels self on toddler bike by pushing with feet on the ground
  • runs without stumbling

 

2 - 3 Years

  • walks up stairs independently
  • walks down stairs holding on to railing or adult’s hand
  • jumps in place with both feet
  • jumps from a height of 8"
  • pedals tricycle
  • pushes chair or stool to counter and climbs up
  • somersaults forward
  • climbs up and goes down a toddler slide
  • stands up one foot momentarily
  • walks up and down stairs, alternating feet
  • climbs jungle gyms and ladders
  • jumps forward repeatedly for a distance of 2-3 feet
  • runs smoothly, with changes in speed and direction
  • walks on tiptoes

 

3 - 4 Years

  • holds arms overhead, extended at shoulder level, or behind body for 15 seconds without tiring
  • walks backwards and sideways on request
  • starts and stops locomotor movement on request
  • marches to music
  • throws tennis ball 10 feet
  • catches thrown playground ball
  • walks up to playground ball and kicks it
  • balances on either foot for 5 seconds
  • does standing broad jump (distance not important)
  • keeps swing active when started (pumps)

 

4 - 5 Years

  • sits cross-legged or ‘tailor’ style on floor
  • follows a variety of directions involving moving the body with feet in one place (bend sideways, squat down)
  • hangs from overhead bar with weight on arms
  • pushes/pulls wagon or doll buggy
  • walks forward on a 3-inch wide textured line for 10 feet
  • walks forward short distance on balance beam
  • jumps forward 10 consecutive times without falling
  • jumps backwards
  • does standing broad jump, 25 inches
  • gallops
  • hops on one foot 5 consecutive times
  • throws ball/bean bag toward visual/auditory target
  • bounces and catches bounced playground ball (one bounce)
  • dribbles playground ball 2-4 feet

 

5 - 6 Years

  • walks in a line, either single file or with a partner
  • joins hands with partner on both sides and steps forward/backward on request
  • runs 40-50 yards without discomfort
  • skips on alternating feet
  • swings on swing, initiating and sustaining motion
  • does ‘log’ roll for 10 feet (continuous roll on mat, arms stretched overhead)
  • performs backward somersault
  • carries an object weighing 10-16 pounds
  • moves from one overhead bar to another by swinging arms
  • catches a thrown playground ball with both hands
  • hits ball with bat or stick (child with visual impairment may use T)
  • rides bicycle with training wheels or tandem bike
  • jumps rope independently
  • maintains balance while moving on skates or skis
  • coordinates several motor skills in one activitiy (jumping jacks, relay races, circle game)

 

 

 

 

Ask Dr. Susan