Milestones of Development 19-21 Months

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This is what you as a parent can do to make your child smarter.

Area of Development Skill Level Play Activity
Hands Will retrieve hidden toy – all trials Show child objects, hide object completely under 1 screen
Hands Will retrieve hidden toy – all trails Place shown object under screens in this order 1, 2 , 3, 1, 2 – scarves, washcloth, inverted box, wax paper, ball, doll, cup
Hands Pinches and uses cortical opposition in both hands Let child handle checks and poker chips in containers – Pringles can, tennis ball can, checkers, poker chips, snack items, coasters, jar lids, egg carton, keys, items off teething rings
Hands Gets all objects out of 10 in a box Use box with interesting objects that change frequently – wide box, bucket, basket, balls, clothespins, large beads, blocks, cars, books
Hands Touches and labels objects without seeing them pants, shoes, and socks off with no help Play “Shell Game” – show toy, hid it, ask child to find and identify
Hands Can insert and remove objects from container “Feel” box with attractive objects: keys, latches, etc.
Hands Fits cans inside one another according to size Use pots and pans, boxes, cans, nesting cups, use first then add
Hands Points to body parts Relate your body parts to child’s pet, TV characters, stuffed animal , doll, pictures in book
Hands Threads and strings objects Progress from large stack of rings to small
Hands Strokes crayon in air Draw in the air – sunshine circles, dots, wind, raindrops, etc.
Hands Fits cans inside one another according to size Use pots and pans, boxes, cups, nestling cups; use 2 first then and pots – pots and pans, cans, nestling cups, measuring cups, small boxes
Hands Points to body parts Relate your body parts to child’s pet, TV characters – stuffed animal, doll, pictures in book
Hands Threads and strings objects Progress from large stack rings to small
Hands Eats and spills with spoon Play eating and cooking in restaurant, party, etc. – spoon, suction bowl, food like cereal, pudding, applesauce
Hands Uses cup; puts down when finished  
Hands Begins to dress self; fusses with zippers and buttons  
Hands Holds spoon right side up; spills Using whipped cream show how cream is hidden if spoon upside down
Hands Imitates vertical and circular stroke Walk on masking tape circle taped to the floor, paint water on chalkboard, uses crayons on paper
Hands Sits and reads picture books; turns pages singly Make regular daily time for looking at books – books, greeting cards tied together with string, pictures on index cards tied together with string
Locomotion Empties and pours objects in and out of container Use conversational talk with kitchen play – dishes, pots, cups, sifter, funnel, variety of containers
Locomotion Climbs upstairs or onto low chair Use small-size furniture for child to climb into – child’s chair, foot stool, bean bag pillows, cushions from sofa, large pillows, balance beam, sturdy box
Locomotion No longer creeps or crawls  
Locomotion Rarely falls when walking Step in and out of a circle or hoop on floor – circle drawn on floor with tape, hoop
Locomotion Can stoop, pick up, and stand again  
Locomotion Squats at play  
Locomotion Walks up stairs holding rail Practice on different stairs
Locomotion Pushes toy, says “vroom-vromm” Use heavy toys that need pushing – train, car, boat, plane, truck, bus (wheel toys), small furniture or toys to push: walker, large box, wagons, toddler taxi, push riding toys, grocery boxes (empty or full)
Locomotion Runs, stops, turns around, stoops down Arrange for child to push and pull objects – low tables, chairs, boxes, sofa cushions, large pillows, ramps, balance beam, gym mats set up as a wall/maze
Locomotion Throws from elbow, retrieves, throws again Use soft balls of different sizes – bean bags to throw at a target, balls with Velcro to throw at a board, yarn balls toward an attractive target, foam shapes, sponges, Nerf balls, medium to large balls
Locomotion Kicks ball on request Kick ball into box or basket – medium laundry basket, box and ball, balloons, grocery bag blocks
Locomotion Walks backwards; runs Walk on balance beam backwards and forwards – balance beam, plank with supports
Locomotion Takes a step backwards; runs Encourage child to run for a hug
Locomotion Walks up and down stairs alone Use rocking boat steps
Locomotion Dances; joy in movement and motion Use materials to move with – scarves, crepe paper streamers, paper plates, ribbon, pompoms
Locomotion Marches; carries blocks, toys around room, pounds together March with blocks, clap together – sand blocks, streamers, pompoms
Potty Training Goes to and sits on potty Have adaptable seat for toilet with foot stool, role play toileting with dolls
Language Associates words with objects; points  
Language Says eight words in addition to “Ma-ma” and “Da-da” Repeat words and phrases; ask questions
Language Says up to 25 words Repeat words clearly; vary tone and inflection
Language Uses phrases; understands simple directions Play “Pick up” and “Where is?” games
Language Says two word sentences Use two word sentences with child: “Baby sit” – dolls and accessories
Language Words replace actions  
Language Identifies familiar objects seen on TV Relates same objects in book as on TV
Auditory Imitates; picks up jargon; plays telephone Use positive words to praise child’s words
Auditory Pursues sounds and makes same sound Call attention to sounds of toys, fire trucks, etc. – clock, toys, razor, vacuum, trucks, dogs, children, mixer, etc.
Auditory Understands 10-25 words; 2 word couplets Any song
Auditory Understands 1 step directions Give silly directions: “Blow me a kiss”, “Rub your tummy”, etc.
Auditory Identifies sounds without seeing them Make sound behind screen; ask child what is the sound? where is it? – screen wax paper, scarf, cardboard, clock, squeaky toy, etc.
Tactile Responds to music with animation and action Use toddler records, songs, finger plays – “Baby Song”, “Baby Face”
Tactile Chews effortlessly Use dolls to pretend chewing food, talk about teeth moving – puppet, paper bag with mouth and teeth
Tactile Imitates stroke on paper Use crayons and large sheets of paper, draw with finger in air
Tactile Discriminates hot, cold, rough, smooth Use different textures of fabric – homemade or purchased picture file
Visual Has sense of vertical plane Pick different motions to do while standing, walking around room
Visual Names pictures pertaining to house, food, etc. Make personal books with pictures of own house, clothes, food, child’s life, etc.
Visual Increasingly aware of edges and shapes Play with foam shapes; feel edges
Visual Segregates parts; categorizes simple objects visually (socks, shoes) Categorize object through picture file: several types of balls, etc.
Visual Prefers vertical to horizontal scanning Let child do activities in standing position; easel painting, – easel, standing chalkboard, posterboard propped / hung so child can stand and use area
Visual Identifies things where they should be Ask child to help collect things for activity, objects should be within child’s reach; various rooms; coloring, snack, bath, bed, washing, dusting, baking, etc.
Social Says no even when likes something Sing “No” is uh-oh; ignore “No”
Social Capable of fear, anger, jealousy, anxiety, sympathy, suspicion, etc. Use mirrors to see facial expressions
Social Works hard at play; self-absorbed play Find favorite toys; allow plenty of time to play with favorites
Social Concentrates on “parts” of objects Break activity into simple steps – putting small objects in and taking out of a container, turning pages of board book one at a time, putting magnets on and off refrigerator one at a time, picture cards to turn over one at a time
Social Resistant to change in routines Explain beforehand what is happening and when normal routine returns
Social Beginning to claim mine Talk about possession: “This is your cracker.”  “You take the toy.” – every day objects-food, toys, clothes, picture of child
Social Worries about people, parts of body Talk to child when dressing about parts of body, role play with doll using loose clothes
Social Likes errands of fetch and carry Set table for snack with napkins, cups, etc., get items for bath
Social Engages in parallel play Sing songs and finger plays in groups
Social Makes mental picture of objects and actions Ask child to act out actions talked about; rolling ball, pushing box – “Hokey Pokey”, “Looby Loo”, “Monkey See, Monkey Do”
Ask Dr. Susan