Milestones of Development 2 Year

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This is how you as a parent can make your child smarter.

Area of Development Skill Level Play Activity
Eyes Can visually distinguish small objects at a distance Play I spy in a car
Eyes Can discriminate between small print letters  
Hands Handle everything in reach, in sight, in sound, in range Give simple directions when playing, ask to point out or get objects – play sets: farm, garage, work bench, cars, etc., point out toys, clothing, food, objects in books and magazines
Hands They dump, pour Sandbox play
Hands They insert, remove Buckets with small objects to put in; dump out
Hands They stir, unstir When you are cooking hand your child a bowl and spoon to pretend
Hands Turns on, turns off Busy boxes with lots of gears and buttons
Hands Hand-to-hand Hand two thing to your child at once.  This also helps them in the decision making process.
Hands Loves to take things apart, but cannot always put them together again Give opportunity to manipulate toys that come apart – household goods, nuts and bolts, pop beads, q-tip box, waffle blocks, bristle blocks, links that easily come apart, etc.
Hands Turn the pages of a book, one page at a time Use cloth books, thick pages, flip photo albums, greeting
cards tied together with string
Hands Able to build a tower of 6 blocks Practice stacking; encourage; work down in size up in number – pillows, foam pieces, large plastic containers, cereal boxes, milk cartons
Hands Can use small scissors Give magazines have your child practice cutting on pages.
Hands Can hold a glass of milk or juice securely  
Hands Can turn knobs  
Hands Can turn doorknob to enter or leave room  
Hands May hold a pencil or crayon with adult grip Have lots of art supplies on hand
Hands Able to take lids off jars Save old plastic jars when you are done with them.
Hands Things still slip out of fingers Be patient, they are still so young.
Hands Can draw vertical line Have paper, pens and rulers available to practice.
Hands Build a tower of five cubes Practice stacking; encourage; work down in size, up in number – paper bag blocks  (fill big with crumpled newspaper and tape shut)
Body Movements Have 2 sides of their body to use  
Body Movements Have mobility which is new & exciting freedom  
Body Movements They may pedal up and down Have a small tricycle for them to try riding.
Body Movements May climb, slide, jump, hop on 2 feet Use records and tapes
Body Movements Use lateral & reciprocal movements Walk on tape on the floor - backwards and forwards
Body Movements Use backward movements proceeding forward motion Walk outside of home to build up confidence.
Body Movements Run, jump, gallop, clap Use records or tapes.
Body Movements Large motor small spaces  
Body Movements Obsessed with spatial exploring  
Body Movements Delight in rough-and-tumble play Get down on the floor and play with your child
Body Movements Insist on being mother's helper, assisting in everyday housekeeping chores Give your child a small broom, dust cloth and other play cleaning materials.  Let them help you fold the laundry.
Body Movements Stand on one foot alone Draw hopscotch on the driveway
Body Movements Jump in place, both feet off floor simultaneously Use record or tapes
Body Movements Climb with a purpose-to see better or reach for something Make an obstacle course in your living room
Body Movements Difficulty mastering simple space relationships  
Locomotion Monitors his walk & the placement of his feet so that he will be able to deal with obstacles in his way Make sure your child has a safe environment.  Move obstacles out of the way.
Locomotion Walking pattern not smooth; foot and leg move as one  
Locomotion Like to walk unaided Use objects that move or have wheels, small vehicles for child to push while on hands and knees, small furniture to push- walker, wagon, large box, toddler taxi, push riding toys, push grocery boxes around
Locomotion Dislike being carried or pushed in a stroller Always hold your child's hand in public
Locomotion Walk backwards for 10 feet  
Locomotion Walk a few steps on tiptoes  
Locomotion Move around house with ease; no longer bumps into things Put toys on adult chair and encourage toddler to climb – overstuffed chair, favorite toy
Locomotion Running still stiff and awkward Encourage child to run for a hug
Locomotion Cannot turn sharp corners, or come to a quick stop  
Locomotion Climb to top of gym; can't climb down again Use stairs to practice downwards steps
Listening They know objects have meaning Play game with feel box and small objects and conversation – box, tactile small objects i.e., block, stone, spoon, ball, cracker
Listening They understand more than they say Encourage words not just gestures; ask questions; model with doll
Listening A great deal of looking, listening and attending is taking place at all times  
Listening Pay more attention to what people say Converse and chat with child
Listening Understand longer sentences Use tapes, records, and talk a lot; limit TV
Listening Enjoy books; point to and name objects; turn pages Use homemade picture file
Talking/Communication Can identify objects by pointing or talking Use play objects in a box
Talking/Communication They talk in syllables, words and phrases Clarify words for child; emphasize and pronounce clearly
Talking/Communication They scream, whine, laugh, shriek Introduce noisemakers to child – bells, drums, blocks, tambourine, shakers, rhythm sticks
Talking/Communication Have body gestures and movements which tell adults what they want and need Encourage words not just gestures; ask questions; model with doll
Talking/Communication They make funny sounds and faces Give silly directions: “Blow me a kiss”, “Rub your tummy”, etc.
Talking/Communication They may say "I"  
Talking/Communication They may say "all gone"  
Talking/Communication They may say "me go ball"  
Talking/Communication They may say "I go to bathroom"  
Talking/Communication Joins in five words of song Any song
Talking/Communication Nods, agrees, steps forward, leans Always use positive reinforcements
Talking/Communication Short sentences, avoid "I"  
Talking/Communication Loud noises Talk to your child about "library voices"
Talking/Communication Labeling and name calling - kitty; meow  
Talking/Communication Practicing sounds - ba, bye, all gone, so big Repeat nursery rhymes over and over again
Talking/Communication Use three-word sentences  
Talking/Communication Name 6 body parts Point to body parts in a sing song voice.
Talking/Communication Use personal pronouns, "I", "you" and "me"  
Talking/Communication Average number of words is 272 Repeat words and phrases; ask questions.
Talking/Communication Tremendous increase in vocabulary Repeat words and phrases; ask questions.
Talking/Communication Form 2 & 3 word sentences Use two word sentences with child: “Baby sit” – dolls and accessories
Talking/Communication Use words that name things, persons and actions predominately Repeat words clearly; vary tone and inflection
Talking/Communication Rhythmic language Sing songs and make games out of everyday things
Talking/Communication Overgeneralize words  
Talking/Communication Counting and classifying objects Ask child to help collect things for activity, objects should be within child’s reach; various rooms; coloring, snack, bath, bed, washing, dusting, baking, etc.
Talking/Communication Vocabulary of more than 3 but less than 50 words; some have vocabulary of 200 to 300 words Repeat words clearly; vary tone and inflection
Talking/Communication Join words together into two-word phrases Encourage communication by chatting with your child back and forth
Talking/Communication Still rely on facial expressions, gestures, body movements for communication Tell your child to use your words
Talking/Communication Call themselves by own name; i.e., "Mary wants apple" Repeat the sentence back using correct language
Talking/Communication Can sing phrases of songs Any song
Talking/Communication Imitate parents' tone of voice Repeat words clearly; vary tone and inflection
All Routines and rituals important Keep to a schedule
Dressing They may dress up Have hats, shoes and clothing available for play
Dressing Beginning to take an interest in buttoning and unbuttoning Have dress up clothes with zippers and buttons
Dressing Can put on socks, shoes and hats Let your child try and dress themselves
Dressing Able to do some tooth brushing herself Brush your own teeth with your child to encourage proper brushing
Dressing Enjoy bath Have toys in bathtub
Dressing Like to wash hands, but never their faces Have your child practice on dolls or other objects.
Dressing/Eating Has a tendency to dawdle Break activity into simple steps – putting small objects in and taking out of a container, turning pages of board book one at a time, putting magnets on and off the refrigerator one at a time, picture cards to turn over one at a time
Feeding/Eating Definite food likes and dislikes appear Have a variety of finger foods on hand to try.
Feeding/Eating Appetites are smaller; less interest in eating; do not need as much food Have smaller meals several times a day
Sleeping Sleeps 13 hours and has naps of 1-2 hours Regular sleep schedules are important at this age
Sleeping Sleep requirements vary between 8 and 17 hours a night Keep to a schedule
Toileting Anal & urethra sphincter muscles mature allowing child to be toilet trained Potty chair available to sit on whenever so it becomes comfortable
Toileting Ask to go to the toilet Have your child go to the potty when you go and sit together.
All 3 Eager to affect environment, interacting with every object in his path Take nature walks
All 3 Play with attributes of things: texture, shape, size, color, function Use 3 piece puzzles and cut-out boxes to feel and touch edges, shapes puzzle, large knobs, shape box
Tactile Manual, manipulative Sort objects in pile – blocks, rings, spoons, cups, balls, socks, shoes, books, etc.
Tactile Can put a square block into the rectangular hole of a shape-sorting box Use a shape sorting box
Visual Use their eyes to guide their hands and feet  
Visual Vague awareness of relationship between things; their number, quantity, weight, size Use play sets such as farm, garage, etc. – workbench, farm set, play broom, mop, etc.
Visual Discriminate vertical from horizontal lines Use of the words up and down, back and forth and sideways will help distinguish
Attachment Are deeply attached to their parents Give plenty of hugs and kisses
Attachment Separate carefully and briefly Just remind your child you will be back soon
Attachment Significant social relations center around parental persons Play groups
Attachment Actively tries to prove their independence by disobeying, being negative & doing what they feel like doing Ignore “no”, say, “let’s go do…”
Attachment Like parents to play with them, chase them, play hide-and-seek & read & sing to them  
Attachment Social contacts are brief & transitory, due to short attention span Play groups
Attachment Adjusting to age mates individually or in groups is socially awkward Set up small play groups
Attachment Parents still on top of social ladder Set up play groups with your friends
Attachment Strong attachment to mother Spend time with your child
Attachment Increasing sense of independence Let them help you do chores and cook in the kitchen simple things
Attachment Fears & anxiety about separation from mother erupt Reassure your child you will be back soon
Emotional They play side by side  
Emotional They are learning to give and take (Take comes first) Practice giving and taking
Emotional They are learning to pass and receive (Receive comes first) Play catch with a ball
Emotional They are learning to hide and look (Looking comes first) Play hide and seek.  Mommy is coming to find you.
Emotional They are learning to put in, take out (Taking out comes first) Put objects in a feel box and ask to pull out and name
Emotional They are learning to put on, take off (Taking off comes first) Dress up clothes
Emotional They may fight over a common toy If it happens often having two of the same item may help, teach about taking turns (still too early though)
Emotional They may fall apart and throw a tantrum Daily
Emotional May have a favorite toy or person Each child should have something special that they can call their own.
Emotional Just realizing they are separate selves  
Emotional They are secure, when they are secure  
Emotional Have feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, etc. Read books on feelings
Emotional Have feelings that change rapidly Read books on feelings
Emotional Have short memories, attention spans Have lots of activities for them to do
Emotional Need time, structure, balance in their lives Schedules are important
Emotional Alert/overwhelming  
Emotional Pleasure in looking at & being looked at Have mirrors close by and tell your child how beautiful they are
Emotional Beginning of self-concept  
Emotional Disgust  
Emotional Curiosity  
Emotional Freely mixes inanimate & animate objects in his spoken responses  
Emotional Hitting & biting are prevalent in the beginning stages of social learning Remove the child from the situation and so  NO - NO BITING
Emotional Obtain & hoard possessions Give them their own space for their things
Emotional Feelings of affection & tenderness can get mixed up with shoves and punches Role play
Emotional Assert their independence b y saying "no" Ignore "No" and revert attention elsewhere
Emotional Beginning to explore potential for influencing other people, especially parents  
Emotional Mainly interested in themselves.  Not apt to show or play with age mates They can play side by side at this age but not together
Emotional Ready for participation in informal or formal play group Start teaching about rules
Emotional Initial concept of friend as a familiar peer Have play groups
Emotional Call all women mommy and all men daddy  
Emotional Many fears come about Reassure your child they are safe
Emotional Intent on doing things their way  
Emotional Self-concept enhanced when people react with approval and praise their accomplishments Always catch your child being "good"
Emotional/Attachment Need prompt attention Look into your child's eyes when engaging them
Emotional/Attachment Up and down preferences Ride on a teeter totter
Imitation They try to help, do imitations of what they see Have your child help in the kitchen
Imitation Their imitative & perceptual behaviors show finer discrimination Dress Up and role play
Imitation Imitate mannerisms of parents or primary caretaker Role play
Imitation Fears learned from parents: mice, snakes, thunderstorms  
Ask Dr. Susan