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Ideal Seventh Grade Curriculum

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STORYBOARD - Goals and Objectives



1. Learn to express one’s self through creating works of art

            Applied to every lesson - Lessons listed stress a more creative approach some

            1.  Scratchboard - use of value in expression

            2.  Nature study use of color expression

            3.  Homework - illustration of poem - visual expression of words (written by student)


2.  Learn to respond to works of art.

  • Through trips to the art museum
  • Through lecture and demonstration
  • Presentation of famous art works
  • Discussion of fellow student’s works
  • Demonstration, discussion, and presentation of my work


3.  To understand how artists express themselves through their artwork

  • In charcoal landscape, student learned how important value can be in presenting a mood or feeling.
  • Illustrating a poem transformed a verbal expression into the visual expression.


4.  Understand and apply media techniques, principles and theory to art.

                         Value - the secret to it all is stressed

                         In all grades - composition, color, perspective, and value are presented and
                         put into  practice - becoming more involved as student progresses.

               1.  Value stressed (charcoal landscape, scratchboard)

               2.  Intensity and value in color

                        3.  Two paint perspective


5.  Using knowledge of structure and functions of art

  • This can be seen mainly through museum trips.  In my classes I can only present two              dimensional art (because of time element) - its function and the way you would structure a composition or demonstrate the correct approach to a drawing or painting.  There is not time to present sculpture, ceramics weaving ? - Printmaking will be done in the elective but that is also two dimensional.
  • Functions:  Perspective lecture:  Art in architecture, art in industry
  • Elective:  Commercial - graphicants
  • I present my classes through eyes of a working artist.
  • Art as illustration - Grade 7 poem
  • Art as enhancement.           




STORYBOARD - Goals and Objectives




6.  Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, and ideas.

  • Appears in most assignments except for lecture.


7.    Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and culture

  • Grades 6, 7 & 8 through trips to museum
  • Presentation of artist works in class
  • Application through their own art work


8.  To become aware of how societies express values and beliefs through visual art

  • Grades 6, 7 & 8 through trips to museum
  • Presentation of artist works in class
  • Application through their own art work


9. Reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and merits of their work and the  
    work of others.

       Through the critique - a very important teaching tool.

              This worked especially well in the 7th grade as the students saw how important value
               is in their landscape critiques.


10.  Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines

             Illustration of poem written by student


The seventh grade curriculum recognizes students' need to develop peer group skills in an interdisciplinary learning environment. Teachers strive to motivate their students to make personal connections with the subjects they study- literature, politics, philosophy, mathematics, science, religion, art, history, languages and music. Critical thought and constructivist thinking are effective instructional strategies for seventh grade. Students enjoy using multimedia approaches and experimental types of scientific investigation to understand changes in the nature of the universe, allowing them to focus on life beyond their own families, schools, and community activities.


The study of English language and literacy in the seventh grade reinforces students' comprehension, grammatical and rhetorical reading skills, and emphasizes enjoyment of reading, as well as competence in academics. In reading and writing workshops, students gain self-confidence and increased competency in using information-gathering strategies and organizational skills. Teachers promote students' sense of belonging to a school community of readers and writers. In addition to reading and writing opportunities, teachers create oral language experiences, all which are integrated with social studies/history themes.

A. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of writing:

1. Review paragraph development.
2. Extend the writing process in specific writing areas, such as narrations, descriptions, and
3. Plan advanced strategies for practice in punctuation, correct parts of speech, word usage,
     and capitalization.
4. Conduct mini lessons on such topics as purpose, audiences, lead, and various
    grammatical problems; i.e., possessives, plurals, etc.
5. Help students learn to understand books, and identify characteristics of effective writing.
6. Help students use a variety of library science resources.
7. Establish an enriching and rewarding writing atmosphere.
8. Develop students' interest in developing strong characterizations in their writing.
9. Establish students' understanding of "point of view".

B. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of reading develops students' critical reading skills, knowledge of interpretation, and ability to analyze literature. They learn to respond to literature through journals and discussions. Teachers assist students in following incidents that occur in plots, in order to identify an author's tone, sense of ironic innuendo, and satire. Students learn to discriminate between probable fact and imaginative detail and connect reading to historical and current issues.

1. Present significant, complex young adult literature.
2. Provide opportunities to reinforce reflective and critical reading skills through literature
    emphasizing theme, moral, plot setting, characterization style, tone, and point of view,
    stressing vocabulary.
3. Introduce recurring themes and simple dialogue.
4. Guide students to read widely.
5. Instruct students on strategies for comparing and contrasting fiction and non-fiction.
6. Help students to locate evidence to justify opinions.
7. Guide literary discussion within peer groups.
8. Examine poetry forms and guide creative poetry writing.
9. Introduce short stories, including autobiographies, biographies, essays, satire, and slave
10. Promote identification of thematic statements that reflect larger ideas of stories.

C. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of public speaking focuses on a poetry    
    presentation at a Middle School meeting, and the presentation of research and experiences
    stemming from their Williamsburg studies and trip. Explicit techniques for oral    
    presentations, listening in order to understand a speaker's main point, clarification and
    questioning techniques and ways in which language differs in different contexts are among
    key points reflected in the study of public speaking.

1. Model techniques and strategies for students to use in making oral presentations.
2. Promote listening skills in understanding speaker's main point.
3. Promote and develop clear questioning techniques.
4. Discuss with students examples of situational language use.


The study of the French language in the seventh grade incorporates more complex vocabulary use and adds creative writing, which enables students to use irregular verbs and more grammatical competence. Writing, reading, and public speaking are designed to make the French language "come alive" for students. Hands-on experiences form the nucleus of a conversational approach to understanding the French language.

Teachers present examples of grammatical competence and stress the importance of vocabulary, pronunciation, morphology, and syntax. They explain discourse competence as a combination of cohesion and coherence and define the meaning of authentic communication, conversation, and French culture.

A. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of reading:

1. Review the text, Dis Moi, describing to students the importance of learning new vocabulary.
2. Instruct students during mini-lessons to distinguish between 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person of the
    verb "aimer".
3. Introduce Monstre en Metro as the literary genre to be used for reading.
4. Use a grammar diskette to enhance proper word and syntax usage.
5. Continue building vocabulary banks of high-interest words.
6. Identify the verb "aller" and all subject pronouns.
7. Recognize the difference between the infinitive and imperative forms of the verb "aller".
8. Recognize the verb "etre" and its imperatives.
9. Interpret "avoir" idioms.
10. Interpret the meaning of specific types of dialogue to students.

B. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of French vocabulary:
1. Use Mots Nouveaux I & II vocabulary text, chapters 1-5, and exercises with students.
2. Involve students in discussing French words and phrases, which they know.
3. Instruct students in the proper use of the verbs "aimer" and "aller".
4. Introduce 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person verb forms.
5. Engage students in activities that include pronouns, imperatives, infinitives, negative
    imperatives, and negative phrases using the possessive case.
6. Explain to students how to make nouns plural.
7. Make questions using indefinite articles, such as "Est - ce que?"
8. Make inversions with students, such as "nést ce pas".
9. Use question words to describe French culture, stressing topics such as La Marseillaise, Le
    Tri couleur, Liberté, egalité, fraternité, and La Fleur de Lis.

C. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of French grammar and vocabulary:

1. Introduce singular possessive adjectives in the context of dialogue.
2. Explain the process of obtaining verb "etre" verb agreement, and the use of imperatives.
3. Identify definite determiners used after expressions of quantity, and after negatives.
4. Plan ways for students to use "avoir" idioms.
5. Reintroduce numbers 70 - 1,000 and use in conversations with students.
6. Teach students proper manners, expressions, such as asking and giving directions.
7. Introduce students to the use of the partitive article and article determiners.
8. Help students master "er" verbs.

D. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of French writing:

1. Promote the students' ability to write sentences describing preference
2. Write simple paragraphs using past and present vocabulary.
3. Develop ability to make negatives.
4. Be able to change nouns from singular to plural.
5. Write questions employing four different ways of forming a question.
6. Be able to write all forms of "etre" and imperatives of "etre".
7. Write sentences showing possession by employing singular and plural possessive
8. Show in written form noun and adjective agreement.
9. Write answers to questions concerning dialogue.

E. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of French oral speaking:

1. Prepare students for full participation orally in class.
2. Model ability to answer simple questions, using vocabulary and proper pronunciation.
3. Orally conjugate "aller".
4. Orally list all subject pronouns.
5. Form negatives orally.
6. Express a question using voice intonations.
7. Orally make questions from a statement.
8. Answer simple questions concerning culture in the target language.
9. Orally conjugate "etre".
10. Orally identify all possessive adjectives.
11. Read dialogue aloud concentrating on correct pronunciation.


The study of mathematics in the seventh grade is based on the premise that students have mastered whole number operations. Skills and concepts involving fractions and decimals are reviewed, but it is assumed that the experience with these applications and operations is well developed. The majority of this curriculum entails refining understanding and applications using fractions, decimals, percents, and geometry. Elementary principles of algebra are introduced. The key to understanding is found in multiple reinforcements and applications.

The curriculum is organized to accommodate occasional reinforcement and ongoing enrichment while providing a broad program of instruction in basic skills, concepts, and computation. The curriculum promotes integration of math with other disciplines. Diverse problem solving situations and strategies are incorporated to promote divergent and convergent thinking skills and develop an appreciation for mathematics.

A. The study of mathematics in the seventh grade incorporates basic skills and basic
    principles of algebra.

1. The study of zero and positive whole numbers at the seventh grade level:

a. Review use of expanded notation.
b. Develop identification of subsets as even or odd numbers, prime, or composite numbers.
c. Promote mastery of rounding and estimating.
d. Promote mastery of comparing numbers using symbols of relation.
e. Promote mastery of identifying factors and multiples.
f. Promote mastery of rules of divisibility.
g. Use prime factorization to determine greatest common factor and least common multiple.
h. Develop and expand recognition and application of whole number properties.
i. Reinforce recognition of square numbers and square roots.
j. Introduce triangular and rectangular numbers.
k. Develop equivalent names for numbers.
l. Develop evaluation of exponential expressions.
m. Extend use of inverse operations to solve for missing values.
n. Provide practice in applying whole numbers to multi-step problems.

2. The study of decimals at the seventh grade level:

a. Promote mastery of reading and writing decimals to millionths.
b. Promote mastery of using expanding form to reinforce place value.
c. Promote mastery of converting decimals to fractions.
d. Promote mastery of comparing decimals using >, <, and =.
e. Introduce complex decimals and fraction equivalents.
f. Reinforce and extend performance of basic operations using decimals.
g. Develop division of decimals.
h. Review and apply multiplication and division by powers of 10.
i. Promote practice in writing equations and solving problems.

3. The study of fractions at the seventh grade level:

a. Promote mastery of identifying part of a region or group and expressing the value in fraction
b. Promote mastery in determining equivalent fractions.
c. Promote mastery in simplifying fractions to lowest terms.
d. Develop comparison of fractions, using >, <, and =.
e. Promote mastery of interchanging mixed numbers and improper fractions.
f. Review and extend performance of basic operations.
g. Develop recognition of reciprocal, and multiplication and division as inverses.
h. Develop recognition of fractions as a division problem.
i. Reinforce converting fractions to decimals.
j. Promote application in writing equations and problem solving.

4. The study of geometry at the seventh grade level:

a. Promote mastery of identifying and naming basic figures.
b. Promote mastery of classifying angles according to acute, obtuse, right, and straight.
c. Promote mastery of measuring angles using a protractor.
d. Develop and extend use of angle relationships to prove angle measurement.
e. Promote mastery of identifying plane figures.
f. Promote mastery of classifying triangles and quadrilaterals.
g. Promote mastery of recognizing congruence.
h. Develop recognition of similar figures.
i. Develop determining lines of symmetry.
j. Develop identification and drawing of transformations of rotation, reflection, and translation.
k. Promote mastery of identifying geometric solids.
l. Promote mastery of finding perimeter and circumference.
m. Promote mastery of finding area of plane figures.
n. Reinforce finding surface area of cubes and rectangular prisms, triangular prisms, and
o. Develop finding volume of cubes, rectangular prisms, triangular prisms, and cylinders.
p. Provide opportunities to read, write, and apply formulas to real world problems.

5. The study of systems of measurement at the seventh grade level:

a. Reintroduce definition of metric prefixes.
b. Reintroduce comparison of metric units of measure to place value system, using powers of
c. Develop recognition of appropriate metric and U.S. customary units for distance, volume,
    and weight.
d. Develop use of metric and U.S. customary scales on a ruler.
e. Develop conversion of measurements within each system.
f. Develop adding and subtracting U.S. customary measurements.
g. Reintroduce multiplying and dividing customary measurements.

6. The study of statistics, graphs, and probability at the seventh grade level:

a. Develop interpretation and construction of line, bar, and circle graphs.
b. Develop analyzing and ordering data to determine mean, median, mode, and range.
c. Develop making predictions and calculating probability of events.

7. The study of ratio, proportion, and percents at the seventh grade level:

a. Develop reading and writing ratios.
b. Reintroduce writing and solving proportions as two equivalent ratios.
c. Reintroduce applying proportions to map scales, scale drawings, and word problems.
d. Review and extend, determining a percent of a region or group.
e. Develop converting percents to decimals and fractions.
f. Introduce determining unknown, rate, base, and percentage using business formula.
g. Provide experience in applying formula to business problems.

8. The study of algebra at the seventh grade level:

a. Introduce reading, writing, and evaluating variable expressions.
b. Introduce solving one and two-step equations.

9. The study of integers as whole numbers and their opposites at the seventh grade level:

a. Promote mastery of identification of positive and negative values on a number line.
b. Develop comparison of signed numbers.
c. Develop addition of integers.
d. Introduce and develop subtraction, multiplication, and division of integers.
e. Provide applications to problem solving.

B. The study of prealgebra at the seventh grade level incorporates basic arithmetic and
    geometry with elementary principles of algebra. Students in this program conceptualize
    easily and readily make mathematical connections that result in higher level thinking.
    These students achieve understanding efficiently so as to move through the basic
    curriculum and into an algebra program during the course of the year.

The curriculum is organized to accommodate occasional reinforcement and ongoing enrichment. While providing a broad program of instruction in basic skills, concepts, and computation, the curriculum promotes integration of math with other disciplines. Diverse problem solving situations and strategies are incorporated to promote divergent and convergent thinking skills and develop and appreciation for mathematics.

The program is sequentially organized to begin with basic mathematics, but incorporates elements of algebra throughout the curriculum. Students in this class can easily integrate and extend their basic skills to more complex processes and applications.

1. The study of integers as whole numbers and their opposites at the seventh grade level:

a. Review comparison of integers by using >, <, or =.
b. Reintroduce determining absolute values.
c. Develop use of integers to add and subtract.
d. Introduce multiplication and division of integers.
e. Extend the application of exponents to negative numbers
f. Guide students to represent number relationships as ordered pairs on the coordinate plane.
g. Provide practice in applying mathematical thinking and modeling to solve problems that
    arise in situations that use positive and negative values, i.e. business and science.

2. The study of rational numbers as a set of positive and negative fractions and decimals at
    the seventh grade level:
a. Promote mastery of comparing fractional and decimal values using >, <, or =.
b. Promote mastery of using fractional and decimal numbers to add, subtract, multiply, and
c. Develop relationship of the decimal system to metric system using multiplication and
    division to interchange units of measure.
d. Introduce writing of standard numbers in scientific notation.
e. Provide opportunities for exploring problems and describing results using mathematical
    and verbal representations.

3. The study of ratio, proportion, and percents at the seventh grade level:

a. Promote mastery of reading and writing ratios.
b. Develop solving direct proportions.
c. Introduce solving indirect proportions.
d. Promote mastery of writing percents as fractions and decimals.
e. Experiment in using proportions in problem solving; i.e., map scales, scale drawings,
    similar figures, and mixture problems.
f. Develop finding rate, base, and percentage.
g. Provide opportunities to apply percent and proportion concepts as used in real life
    situations; i.e., discount, commission, tax, and interest.

4. The study of equations and inequalities at the seventh grade level:

a. Introduce simplifying and solving one and two-step equations and inequalities.
b. Introduce representation of linear equations and inequalities on the coordinate plane.
c. Introduce translation words to number sentences using equations and inequalities to solve
    problems based on quantitative comparisons.

5. The study of geometry at the seventh grade level:

a. Promote mastery of identifying, describing, comparing, and classifying geometric figures,
    plane figures, and solids.
b. Promote mastery of recognition of geometric patterns; i.e., congruence, similarity, symmetry,
    and basic movements of translation, rotation, and reflection
c. Promote mastery of selection and usage of appropriate tools for measurement and
d. Develop use of angle relationships to prove angle measurements.
e. Promote mastery of estimating and evaluating distance, perimeter, and area of plane
f. Develop recognition of connections between properties of plane figures and geometric
    solids to determine formulas for surface area and volume.
g. Review and extend processes for determining surface area and volume of solids.
h. Develop applications using -x and -y axis and quadrants of coordinate plane by plotting
    ordered pairs and graphing linear equation
i. Introduce sine, cosine, and tangent as basic trigonometric functions.
j. Develop geometry as a means of describing the physical world.

6. The study of statistics and probability at the seventh grade level:

a. Provide practice in collecting, organizing, and describing data.
b. Guide students in constructing, reading, and interpreting tables, charts, and graphs.
c. Use data analysis to evaluate problems.
d. Promote mastery of determining mean, median, mode, and range.
e. Develop making predictions and calculating probability of events.
f. Review and extend sample space.

7. The study of measurement at the seventh grade level:

a. Provide mastery of evaluating appropriate units and estimate measures.
b. Provide mastery of selecting appropriate tools for accurate measurement.
c. Provide mastery of interchanging units of measurement within each system.
d. Develop and promote mastery of performing basic operations using U.S. customary
e. Promote mastery of developing formulas and procedures to determine measures to solve


The study of science in the seventh grade is an in-depth examination of living organisms. Applications to work, machines, and the human body are discovered through a series of experiments, mini-lessons and "hands on" exploration of concepts related to the structure of living things. Students learn to make environmental decisions, using technology and working together in groups, to acquire knowledge to solve a simulative, environmental problem.

Seventh grade students use cooperative learning techniques in problem solving and critical thinking situations. Theories of matter, the nature of gases, and cell theories are interwoven into environmental experiences. Trips and classroom activities are designed to be relevant to students' own perspective on life, providing guidance to help them make decisions and take responsibility for the ecology and environment in which they live.

Environmental studies bring together the elements of water, land, and land use as effected by humans. Field trips introduce students to wetland and beach ecology, and sites of human interaction with the environment. These visitation studies include Mentor Marsh, Headlands Beach, Lake Farm Parks, a plastic company, a recycling center, land fill facility, and the Willoughby drinking water facility.

A. The study of natural wetlands in the seventh grade introduces the Mentor Marsh as one
    type of wetland ecosystem with specific characteristics: a habitat for plants and animals and
    its benefits for humans.

1. Provide opportunities to discover other types of wetlands and the value of wetlands as
    habitats for organisms, which are specifically adapted for survival in each unique
2. Identify human benefits of wetlands in the form of flood control, water purification, water
    storage, and source of foods.
3. Guide and direct use of a CD ROM program titled The Digital Field Trip to The Wetlands, to
    observe models of wetland formation and the effects on pollution.
4. Provide opportunities to observe characteristics of wetlands through hands-on laboratory
5. Direct students in incorporating knowledge of wetlands into a self-directed project that
    integrates science, art, and public speaking.

B. The study of beach composition, waves, currents and erosion in the seventh grade is
    developed through a series of mini-lessons, in combination with experiments, scientific
    method laboratory experiences, and observations.

1. Provide opportunities to discover the components of beach sand in northeastern Ohio
    through observation.
2. Guide students in experiments to model effects of wave and current actions on sandy
    beaches through observations.
3. Provide lessons on sand composition and erosion in combination with scientific method-
    based experiences.

C. The study of fresh water ecosystem and water quality assessment in the seventh grade:

1. Instruct students in identification of indicator macro invertebrates.
2. Introduce river ecosystems.
3. Model safety procedures and precautions related to work around and in a river.
4. Provide field experience in capturing, identifying, and releasing macro invertebrate in a
5. Guide assessment procedure for determining water quality.
6. Review composition of results as published in State review.

D. The study of acid precipitation in the seventh grade:

1. Review stages of the water cycle.
2. Introduce sources of acid precipitation.
3. Introduce chemical interactions involved in production of precipitation.
4. Introduce effects of acid precipitation on elements of the natural world.
5. Provide laboratory experiences to observe chemical reactions and effects of acids on non-
    living things.

E. The study of solutions, dilutions, and neutralization are introduced as related to acid
    precipitation in the seventh grade:

1. Introduce and define solution, dilution, neutralization, solvent, solute, concentration, and
    parts per million.
2. Provide opportunities for laboratory experiences in relating to solvent, solute,
    concentration, and parts per million and neutralization.
3. Introduce concepts of acids, bases and pH as a means of measuring the amount of H+ or
    OH- ions.
4. Relate terms to acid precipitation.
5. Provide laboratory experiences in measuring concentrations and neutralizing acid
6. Discuss means of combating and modifying results of acid precipitation.

F. The study of cells in the seventh grade takes a function approach of understanding the
    cell's role in the functioning of an organism, and the processes implemented to maintain an
    inner environment needed for proper cell function. The student will learn the cell theory, cell
    structures and functions, means of cell reproduction, the relationship between cell size and
    efficiency and the difference between plant and animal cells.

1. Reintroduce the cell as the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms.
2. Reintroduce the cell as basic for all life processes.
3. Identify cell structures, functions, and relation to whole cell.
4. Compare and contrast animal and plant cell shape and structures.
5. Compare and contrast the relationship between cell size and efficiency.
6. Provide an interdisciplinary approach to understanding that figures with same volume can
    have surface areas, and cell size and rate.
7. Introduce diffusion, osmosis, and active and passive transport as processes that work to
    maintain a balanced cell environment.
8. Introduce concepts of homeostasis.
9. Provide laboratory experiences in observing and reporting processes that occur outside a
10. Introduce stages of mitosis as the means of cell division.
11. Provide direct instruction, opportunities for role-playing, class discussions, and audio-
      visual technology.

G. The study of animal classification with emphasis on viruses and bacteria in the seventh
    grade gives the students the sense of the relationships that exist between living things and
    the features of a specific kingdom.

1. Reintroduce Linngean classification system through small group work in grouping
    organisms based on shared traits into the seven divisions of the classification system.
2. Introduce the virus as a non-living thing with many traits shared by living things.
3. Introduce the structure and basic types of viruses.
4. Discuss viruses as potential causes of disease, and specific diseases associated with
5. Model basic means of cell invasion and reproduction.
6. Discuss AIDS as a viral disease, its transmission and protection from getting AIDS.
7. Introduce the bacteria as a member of the protist kingdom.
8. Introduce bacteria as both beneficial and harmful.
9. Introduce structures and their functions of bacteria.
10. Introduce types of bacteria and features.

H. The study of the human body in the seventh grade is an extension from cells to the body,
    and as part of the Animal Kingdom. It is a systems view of the body and their relationship.

1. Reintroduce respiratory, digestive, skeletal/muscular, nervous, and immune systems, their
    structures, functions, and interconnections.
2. Introduce the reproductive system, its structure, function, and relationship with other
3. Provide models, videos, and discussions to explore these systems.


The study of social studies/history in the seventh grade combines methods of inquiry with an interdisciplinary approach to the history of the American nation. Subject matter is discussed and interpreted, as an historical record of discovery, identity and progress of U.S. and its relationship to world history. Students develop an understanding of significant events, people, places, and life conditions:

1. Indians settle in America (Prehistory to 1500's).
2. Europeans come to America (1000 - 1500).
3. Spaniards colonize the Americas (1500 - 1700's).
4. The French settle in North American (1600 - 1700's).
5. The English colonize North America (1500 - 1700's.)
6. Focus on Africans and the six nations of the Iroquois Indians.
8. Colonists Develop New Ways of Life (1600 - 1700's).
9. Americans Rebel Against Great Britain (1754 - 1776).
10. Americans Fight for Independence (1776 - 1783).
11. Americans Create a New Form of Government (1783 - 1789).
12. French & Indian War.

A. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of social studies and history (native
    American Indians):

1. Interpret data to students so they become familiar with the diversity of Native American
    culture and the role of culture in human life.
2. Discuss with students some of the pitfalls of historical misinterpretation so students are able
    to discriminate between fact-based assertions, educated assumptions, and speculation.
3. Introduce inquiry methods, such as examining sound and unsound historical interpretation.
4. Use geography of the Americas and history of native American Indians as means of
    engaging students in understanding pre-agrarian problem solving.
5. Present students with technological and agricultural developments, so they will gain insight
    into the role of technology, commerce, and spiritual worldview with regard to the shaping of
    individual lifestyles.
6. Discuss and describe primitive worldviews, such as the cosmic and spiritual
    understandings of America's native people.
7. Define and explain the role of agriculture in the development of stable communities and
    detailed religious traditions (economic, political, and spiritual ideas).

B. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of social studies and history (Spanish,
    French, English, African, and Six Nations of the Iroquois):

1. Help students recognize and understand motives and colonial strategies that are particular
    to each major European power.
2. Describe the Iroquois Empire.
3. Define urbanization and empires in Native America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and
4. Help students comprehend European colonial ventures within the context of larger world
    events, monarchies, and the development of elites.
5. Compare and contrast European cultures with the civilization of Native America and Africa,
    and examine world trade and European exploration.
6. Discuss the transition from Native Americans to a global focus, by clarifying similarities
    between trading cultures.
7. Understand the competing interests of European empires in the new world.
8. Gain insight into the origins of America's move to independence while exploring these
9. Define the impact of cultural and intellectual interaction on international relations.

C. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of social studies and history (America's
    Revolutionary conflict and aftermath):

1. Examine the Revolutionary conflict in considerable detail.
2. Present a broad picture of the development of the early Republic, based on the legacy of
    the Revolutionary struggle.
3. Examine with students the development of America's national identity, ideology, and
    political tradition.
4. Examine similarities between America and the empires of Europe.
5. Define colonial expansion and wars.
6. Define the character of the English, French, and Spanish colonies.
7. Describe aspects of the French and Indian War, and discuss imperial strategies and
8. Discuss and present information that describes Africa, the expansion of empires, religious
    conflict, commerce, urbanization, and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.
9. Describe how Federalists built the government (1789 - 1801).

D. Instructional goals for the seventh grade study of the social studies and history (events and
    consequences of the Civil War):

1. Describe and discuss the advent of Civil War, from the perspective of the soldier's
    experience and the home front experience.
2. Describe how the nation moves ahead (1801 - 1824).
3. Help students understand how American Federalists created a powerful nation, and the
    impact of the War of 1812 and Indian conflicts on the emergence of the sectional crisis,
    emphasizing conflicting interpretations of the nation's revolutionary heritage.
4. Present how different sections develop in America (1789 - 1828).
5. Show how the sectional conflict divides the nation (1850 - 1861).
6. Define how the sectional conflict leads to war (1861 - 1865).
7. Describe how the union became restored (1865 - 1877).
8. Introduce the democratic era begins under Jackson (1820 - 1840's)
9. Explain to students how prosperity leads to a changing America (1820's - 1850's).
10. Define and illustrate how reformers improve American life (1820's - 1850's).
11. Present information and examples of how the nation gains western territories (1820's - 1850's).



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