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Ideal Second Grade Curriculum for All Learners

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At the second grade level we continue to draw upon the child’s background while at the same time extending and broadening his experiences in art.

            Color: Be able to recognize secondary colors and produce warm and cool colors.


  • Be able to express design elements of line, shape, and form.
  • Be able to express design elements of space, color, value, and texture.


Life Form:

  • Learn that facial expressions change with emotions.
  • Learn guidelines for placement of features and body.


Still Life:

  • Recognize what is foreground and background.
  • Locate the center of interest in a composition.



  • Learn to put less detail in the distance and more detail in the foreground and objects get lighter in color as they go away.
  • Understand the ideas of:  what’s behind, in front, beyond, and over.



  • Learn tempera painting by starting with big shapes of color and then adding details.
  • Learn watercolor painting by using wet on wet and dry brush techniques.
  • Use a good composition by filling in the paper and experimenting with shapes and lines.
  • Experiment with tools, other than a brush in painting (e.g. sponge, sticks, finger, feathers, etc.).
  • Use watercolor and tempera paints with other media.
  • Learn to mix their own tempera and acrylic paints and use of brushes in watercolor and India ink painting.
  • Learn shades, tones, and values of colors and their visual impact emotionally on a painting.
  • Be exposed to different painting styles of different artists.


Art and Printing:

  • Demonstrate printing process by use of folding paper in half.
  • Introduced to mono-printings and heat transfer method.
  • Learn various ways of printing using crayons, stencils, textures, Styrofoam, fruits and vegetables, erasers, string, leaves, glue, and found objects.
  • Be introduced to relief prints and etchings.


Fiber Arts:

  • Will construct a loom out of cardboard for weaving and use yarn and found materials.
  • Learn to make simple puppets from paper bags, and them more complex mediums, such as: socks, clay, and paper Mache.



  • Learn to thread needle and make simple stitches (e.g. running, cross, chain, and French knot.)
  • Use muslin, other fabrics, or plastic mesh in stitchery.
  • Experiment with use of yarn, embroidery floss, or other thread or wire for stitchery.



  • Be introduced to contemporary sculpture.
  • Learn to use different materials to form a sculpture (e.g. paper, Styrofoam, clay, tin, wood, paper Mache, and found objects).
  • Learn to assemble sculpture by cutting, bending, folding, tearing, piercing, overlapping, and balancing pieces.
  • Learn proper use of tools in hand building with clay and cleaning-up procedures.



  • Learn to make a montage.
  • Learn to make a collage using found objects, paper, labels, and natural objects.



  • Learn how pastels are made.
  • Employ a nub of paper to blend pastel colors together.





  • Be introduced to simple jewelry construction using string, beads, pasta, buttons, paper, and natural materials.
  • Be aware of types of jewelry made in different cultures and times of history.
  • Experiment with jewelry construction using clay, paper mache, leather, wire, bread dough, plastic, and fabric.


  • Discover illuminated lettering in medieval times and use of color in lettering.
  • Contrast different lettering used in advertising in today’s world.
  • The second grade curriculum reinforces recognition of print and symbolic representation as fundamentals of writing and reading. Teachers focus on routine, recollection, and recall of basic facts and new knowledge added to previously learned facts. Children are given opportunities to work on group projects and develop conversational language skills that enable them to function as a group. Teachers provide direct instruction, as well as "discovery" experiences, in order to engage children in high interest reading and writing activities. Teachers understand that the second grade is a pivotal year for children's mastery of basic addition and subtraction, and for acquiring secure reading skills. Organizational study habits are taught in the second grade.


    The study of the English language and literacy in the second grade is the study of reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills integrated into social studies, science, the fine arts, physical education, and technology.

    A. Writing instruction at the second grade level is a continuation of the study of
        manuscript writing and the beginning of the study of cursive writing.
    1. Demonstrate how to write more than one sentence on the same topic and recognize
        main idea, details, and conclusion.
    2. Generate topics of personal interest, social studies, science, and math.
    3. Help children develop writing skills through daily journals.
    4. Engage in "real" writing through letters, thank you notes, and general    
    5. Introduce words from children's work to reinforce correct grammatical and
        mechanical skills.
    6. Use the conventions of capitalization, punctuation, and grammar.
    7. Emphasize parts of speech through children's written work, reading, and awareness
        of surroundings.
    8. Practice cursive writing.
    9. Practice correct letter formation.
    10. Write spelling words and sentences using proper letter formation.
    11. Demonstrate proper use of handwriting skills in all written work.
    12. Teach letters with similar strokes - one or two each day (lower case first, then
           upper case).
    13. Adapt cursive into spelling.
    14. Adapt size to various formats.

    B. Reading instruction at the second grade level is a communication skill, which prepares children to become capable and responsible citizens. Children acquire information, evaluate ideas, and expand understanding of reading as a basis for the acquisition of knowledge and a lifelong source of pleasure.

    1. Make reading an exciting and high interest experience for each child, as well as
        providing for individual needs and capabilities.
    2. Expose children to a variety of literary forms.
    3. Provide instruction in basic reading skills, content area reading, study skills, and
        recreational reading.
    4. Provide regular and periodic evaluation of the instructional program as it relates to
        individual progress.
    5. Provide for children to master basic skills and develop higher level thinking skills.
    6. Provide enrichments, acceleration, and remediation of the reading process to
        children who need extension work.
    7. Promote children's self-confidence as readers, writers, and thinkers.
    8. Develop children's mastery of: main idea, sequence of order, answer factual
         questions, give specific details, recall characteristics of characters, and distinguish  
         fact from fantasy.
    9. Develop reference and study skills.
    10. Develop literal, inferential, and appreciative comprehension through oral and
           silent reading.
    11. Define the meaning of interpretation and categorization.
    12. Develop appreciation of poetry, plays, and stories.
    13. Provide knowledge of the United States through a timeline of people, places, and
           events including, Christopher Columbus, Native Americans, how our country    
           began, famous Americans, our country long ago, and our country today.
    14. Apply reading skills and strategies to a variety of literary passages and texts,
          poems, folk tales, and fairy tales centered on U.S. history.

    C. Oral communication and listening at the second grade level develops literal,
         inferential, and appreciative comprehension through oral and silent reading.

    1. Practice oral and silent reading skills.
    2. Participate in weekly assemblies.
    3. Evaluate children through informal reading inventories.
    4. Organize class meetings to generate topics on personal interests, social studies,
        science, and math and to be transitional into early school assembly presentations.

    D. Spelling instruction at the second grade level encourages children to discontinue
         inventive spelling.

    1. Study weekly lists of high frequency words and content area words.
    2. Spell words with same patterns, vowel sounds, blends, endings, high frequency,
        content area words, and words of choice.
    3. Review sentence writing and reading clues in workbooks.
    4. Learn to use proper spelling in daily work.
    5. Apply words learned in written compositions, reports, journals and letters.
    6. Provide for strong spellers to add five words to extend their spelling lists.


    The study of mathematics at the second grade level presents children with knowledge of numerical relationships, extension of basic counting, measuring, estimating, and evaluating, as well as basic understanding of numbers as a system by which to understand the world around them.

    A. The study of addition and subtraction facts at the second grade level develops
         children's understanding of one-to-one correspondence, measuring, estimating,
          reviewing, and evaluating.
    1. Practice instant recall of addition facts, double facts, and turn around facts.
    2. Identify other addition facts not included in doubles, 0, or 1 facts.
    3. Generate subtraction facts from addition facts.
    4. Write fact families and use triangle flashcards.
    5. Review number sequences and frames and arrow sequences.
    6. Review sets of number pairs that are related by a single rule.

    B. The study of money and time at the second grade level develops children's
         knowledge of telling time, counting money, measuring length, weight, temperature,    
         and knowledge of standard and non-standard measures.

    1. Identify forms of exchange.
    2. Find the sum of two dollars-and-cents amounts.
    3. Find the sum difference between two dollars-and-cents amounts.
    4. Review rate multiplication.
    5. Learn functional vocabulary, such as 2-rule frames and arrows.
    6. Instruct children in practice of counting coins.
    7. Use coins to teach coin exchange.
    8. Review telling time by quarter and half-hours and introduce telling time to the
    9. Understand statistic and data analysis such as calendars, graphs, tables, and grids.
    10. Organize sets of data about 3 generations, find median values, and add to twelve.

    C. The study of geometry at the second grade level is the study of relationships among
         properties of line segments, angles, and geometric shapes.

    1. Explore 3-D shapes.
    2. Classify 3-D prisms and pyramids.
    3. Explore regular polyhedrons.
    4. Identify kinds of polygons and their parts.
    5. Explore similarities and differences among quadrilaterals.
    6. Name points, line segments, and polygons.
    7. Study shapes and their lines of symmetry.
    8. Copy and create congruent figures.

    D. The study of whole number operations at the second grade level is the study of    
         visual, representational, and abstract observations of whole numbers.

    1. Review strategies for addition with several addends.
    2. Organize sets of data for four food groups.
    3. Solve number stories using parts-and-total.
    4. Solve number stories using "compare" diagrams.
    5. Solve number stories using "change" diagrams.
    6. Use arrays of objects to practice whole number stories.
    7. Find the total number of objects in a rectangular array.
    8. Solve number stories involving equal sharing.

    E. The study of patterns and rules at the second grade level is the observational study
         of relationships among objects or events, which can be organized and displayed.

    1. Review patterns of numbers by skip counting.
    2. Solve number grid and arrow path puzzles.
    3. Use memory keys on the calculator to establish patterns.
    4. Subtract two digit numbers from any higher multiple of ten.
    5. Add three or more numbers mentally.
    6. Introduce squaring of 1-5.
    7. Explore repeated doubling and halving of a number.
    8. Find multiples of one digit numbers and solve multiple stories.
    9. Collect data and find median.
    10. Make a frequency table, a frequency bar graph, and add to 12.

    F. The study of fractions at the second grade level is the study of part and whole

    1. Review naming parts of regions and fractions.
    2. Name quantities with reference to one whole and parts of sets.
    3. Introduce comparing fractions with the same numerator and fractions with same
        denominator, to ½.
    4. Introduce sets of equivalent fractions.

    G. The study of measurement at the second grade level is the survey of tools and units
         of measure.

    1. Review equivalent units of measure in standard and non-standard systems.
    2. Develop method to estimate distance, such as pacing and ballpark.
    3. Solve problems with longer distances.
    4. Measure to the nearest half-inch and half centimeter.
    5. Apply measurement concepts to polygons and perimeters.
    6. Determine areas of polygons by using tiles.
    7. Review uses of weighing devices and units of weight.
    8. Use a bar graph to show temperature forecast.

    H. The study of decimals and place value at the second grade level reviews monetary
        place values.

    1. Experiment with values of coins and bills.
    2. Review decimal notation for dollars-and-cents amounts.
    3. Enter decimals on calculator.
    4. Estimate and find exact change.
    5. Review place value concepts for numbers less than 2,000.
    6. Read and write three, four, and five digit numbers.
    7. Rename numbers as tens, hundreds, and thousands.

    I. The study of multiplication and division facts at the second grade level is an
       introduction to the study of inverse relationships and repeated addition and

    1. Introduce multiplication as repeated addition.
    2. Generate list of multiplication facts.
    3. Explore the relationship between multiplication and division.


    The study of science at the second grade level is a thematic study of life, earth, physical, and environmental sciences according to the process of scientific inquiry.

    A. The study of spiders and insects at the second grade level is part of the study of the
        life sciences.

    1. Compare and contrast spiders and insects. Insects have three body parts - head,
        thorax and abdomen, six legs and live everywhere - land, air, and water. Spiders
        have eight legs and two body parts. Recognize body shapes, including species of        
    2. Discuss the need for food, water, and shelter; need food for a source of energy.
    3. Discuss that spiders use webs to catch their food.
    4. Analyze types, sizes, and shapes of webs.
    5. Discuss that webs have sticky string that insects get caught in and spiders walk on.
    6. Graph and chart locations of spiders and webs.
    7. Prepare children to report on spiders.
    8. Investigate species of bats and insects.
    9. Study the stages of metamorphosis - complete and incomplete.
    10. Investigate mealworms and research their life cycles.
    11. Grow and take care of worms in classroom.
    12. Investigate observations in behavior and locomotion of insects in bug condo for
          any insects found on playground.

    B. The study of bats at the second grade level is part of the study of life sciences.

    1. Graph and chart kinds and characteristics of bats. Bats are mammals and live
        everywhere in the world except Arctic and Antarctic regions.
    2. Dispel myths - bats caught in hair, vampire bats suck people's blood - they suck the
        blood of cows.
    3. Explain nocturnal hunters that come in many sizes, from bumblebee size to 6' wing
    4. Put Scholastic bat model together.
    5. Define echolocation - a means of finding food and of navigation.

    C. The study of weather at the second grade level is part of the study of earth science.

    1. Investigate the kinds and shapes of clouds by making clouds and rain.
    2. Do experiments with a cricket for sound and bottle thermometer.
    3. Discuss various kinds of weather; i.e., tornadoes, hurricanes, snow, rain, and wind.
    4. Winter is a season caused by the tilt of the earth's orbit around the sun.
    5. Discuss adaptations for winter: hibernation, migration, and deciduous trees.
    6. Study 10 common winter birds that frequent bird feeders in winter.
    7. Discuss weather associated with winter.

    D. The study of magnets at the second grade level is part of the study of earth and
        physical sciences.

    1. Discuss how magnets work and the relationship with poles.
    2. Investigate what magnets attract.
    3. Discuss homing pigeons related to magnets.
    4. Experiment with different objects and strengths of magnets.
    5. Investigate if a magnet attracts iron in Cream of Wheat.

    E. The study of sound at the second grade level is part of the study of physical science.

    1. Identify causes of sound - vibrations of air molecules. Sound travels in waves,
        waves pressed close together create a higher pitched sound and waves spread out
        create a lower pitched sound.
    2. Explore sound absorption and reflection on hard and smooth surfaces.
    3. Explore musical instruments as producers of sounds.

    F. The study of electricity at the second grade level is part of the study of physical

    1. Explain rubbing objects together creates static electricity.
    2. Explain circuits are created by a continuous flow of energy.
    3. Explain batteries make energy with chemicals.
    4. Explain a conductor is anything that allows electricity to go through it; e.g., metal.
    5. Explain insulators do not allow electricity to pass through them; e.g., wood and

    G. The study of nutrition at the second grade level is part of the study of life science.

    1. Identify food and the food groups to which they belong.
    2. Place food items in the food pyramid and relate them to their nutritional value.
    3. Plan healthy meals by identifying food for each group.
    4. Self-study of eating habits and nutrition gained through each child's diet.
    5. Strategies for improving and/or maintaining a healthy diet.

    H. The study of dental health at the second grade level is part of the study of life

    1. Identify parts of the tooth and their function - cusp, crown, root, enamel, nerves and
    2. Define kinds of teeth - deciduous, baby, permanent, incisors, canines, and molars.
    3. Learn what causes tooth decay - food particles and bacteria, acid from food dissolve
        enamel of tooth causing cavities.
    4. Discuss cavity prevention strategies: brush properly and regularly.
    5. Visit dental office.

    I. The study of the five senses at the second grade level develops children's ability to
       make careful observations and use tools, and is part of the study of life sciences.

    1. Restate functions of human organs related to the five senses.
    2. Discuss how the body uses each sense.
    3. Discuss the brain's role in the senses.
    4. Experiment with different tastes, smells, sounds, sights, including optical illusions
        and how sensory loss in one area produces enhanced acquity in others.

    J. The study of dinosaurs at the second grade level is part of the study of life and earth.

    1. Dinosaurs are animals that lived long ago, 220 million years ago, and are now
       extinct - plants and animals that once lived on earth but are now gone.
    2. Explore the environment in which they lived - tropical climate.
    3. Investigate how the land used to be and the changes over time - movement of
        land masses, mountain building, and changes in climates.
    4. Discuss the kinds of dinosaurs and the meaning of their names.
    5. Identify plant eaters versus meat eaters.
    6. Explain reptiles with adaptations that helped them survive by getting their food; e.g.,
        sharp teeth for meat eaters vs. plant eaters.
    7. Explore the role of paleontologists and some important discoveries that are being    
    8. Identify fossils as evidence of dinosaurs and their environment.

    K. The study of the rainforests of the world at the second grade level develops
         children's appreciation of a physical environment.

    1. Discuss characteristics of a rainforest, such as thick vegetation, lots of rain, humidity,
        hot temperatures, and thin soil.
    2. Discuss where rainforests are found - central America, India, and Southeast Asia.
    3. Discuss the layers of the rainforest and its inhabitants: forest floor, leaf cutter ants.
    4. Discuss that most rainforest organisms live in canopy layer: orchids, spider
        monkeys, sloths, boa constrictors, parrots, and tree frogs. Emergent - trees stick
        about canopy, harpy eagle.
    5. Discuss preservation, the reason for it, the impact on the environment, the causes
        and impact of destruction, and ways to protect the rainforest.
    6. Present a method of conducting independent research into a specific rainforest

    L. The study of ecological transformations from fall to winter to spring at the second
        grade level is part of the study of physical, earth, and life sciences.

    1. Compare and contrast characteristics of organisms in distinct environments during    
        three different times of the year.
    2. Evaluate and assess according to the process of scientific inquiry.

    M. The study of sound at the second grade level is part of the study of physical, earth,
         and life sciences.

    1. Explore what causes sound.
    2. Identify evidence of waves.
    3. Experiment with various materials to discover if they absorb or transmit sound.


    The study of social studies at the second grade level allows children to recognize that they are self-sufficient, productive, and responsible members of society. The study of people, places, and ideas is particularly important for young citizens in a democratic nation where all of the people have the responsibility and the right to take part in the decisions that affect their lives now and in the future. An understanding of the history of our nation will increase awareness of the need to work hard at preserving a free society, which has resulted from centuries of struggle against tyranny and ignorance.

    Social studies develops children's awareness of self, family, and their place in society. This course of study is a continuation of the study of the early formation of the United States, life of the pioneers, and the cultural backgrounds of children's families. The primary goal is to teach children to live responsibly in a rapidly changing world.

    1. Develop cognitive skills and modes of inquiry and/or decision-making as the
        methodology of social studies.
    2. Explore attitudes, feelings, sensitivities, and values as they are applied to affective
    3. Gain a greater awareness of the world around them starting with their community.
    4. Develop an appreciation of, and a respect for, lifestyles both similar and different to
        their own.
    5. Understand the economic structure of the U.S.
    6. Plan with children how to work together with others and to be more responsible for
        their own actions.
    7. Study the origin, development, divisions, and customs of groups of people around
        the world.
    8. Increase children's understanding of the ways in which goods and services are
        produced, distributed, and used.
    9. Develop an understanding of the relationship between human beings and their
    10. Assist children in developing an understanding of the physical features of the earth
          and their effect upon people's way of life.
    11. Develop an understanding of past events and their cause and effect relationships
          to the present.
    12. Develop appreciation for self, family unit, and society.
    13. Develop an appreciation for democratic societies, past and present, and develop
          an understanding of the free enterprise system.
    14. Develop an understanding and appreciation of political, economic, and cultural
          systems throughout the world.
    15. Bring about pride in our country and an understanding and appreciation for the    
           values, privileges, and responsibilities of being an American citizen.
    16. Create an awareness of the opportunities for careers in the social science field.
    17. Demonstrate how to adapt to the social, political, economic, and cultural conditions
           in a changing society.
    18. Develop children's knowledge of regional folk heroes, stories, and songs that have
          contributed to the development of cultural history of the United States, emphasizing
          Lake County.

    A. The study of anthropology at the second grade level recognizes differences and
        similarities between life in a primitive society and the children's life today.

    1. Identify gradual changes that take place in people's life styles.
    2. Present information on the culture of American Indians, emphasizing their lifestyle
        and cultural farming life.

    B. The study of citizenship at the second grade level relates U.S. history to citizenship.

    1. Discuss the history of the "Pledge of Allegiance", the "Star Spangled Banner", and
         other symbols of patriotism as their responsibility of citizenship.
    2. Explain township and county governments.
    3. Discuss children's values and sense of responsibility.

    C. The study of economics at the second grade level gives details of how family needs
         produce the growth of businesses.

    1. Define economic terms: producer, consumer, goods, and services.
    2. Identify certain industries are generally located in certain areas, such as mining in
        the mountains, farming on the plains, and fishing along the coast.
    3. Present community helpers that we depend upon for services.
    4. Discuss types of businesses and industries in the Painesville and Lake County

    D. The study of geography at the second grade level recognizes basic terms and
         features of maps, globes, and landforms, such as lakes, rivers, oceans, equator,
         North and South poles.

    1. Identify basic features of a map including directional symbol, key, and color scheme.
    2. Identify the four basic directions: north, south, east, and west.
    3. Identify the location of Painesville, Painesville Township, Lake Erie, and Lake
        County as well as Ohio and the United States.

    E. The study of history at the second grade level recognizes differences and
        similarities of modern time and various points in the history of the Painesville and
        Lake County area through visual aides.

    1. Explain why laws were made as community life grew.
    2. Recognize local American Indian tribes.
    3. Present knowledge of various historical points of interest in the area.
    4. Present knowledge of famous Lake Countians; i.e., President Garfield, Thomas
        Paine, Jonathan Goldsmith, and Jack Casement.
    5. Present differences and similarities of various communities (Painesville vs. Mentor,
    6. Identify some of the services offered by Painesville and local communities, such as
        schools, libraries, police departments, fire departments, and post offices.

    F. The study of sociology at the second grade level develops children's understanding
        of why people began forming communities, emphasizing the beginning of

    1. Create awareness of the benefits of community life.
    2. Outline why laws are needed in the community to protect people and property.



I.   Social Skills

            Team work - examples:  Soccer, line hockey, etc.

II.  Fitness

            Start with a short warm up and a few exercises.  With each new term add a new
            exercise.  Do not exceed 7 - 8 minutes.

III.  Manipulative

             Reception and Propulsion Games

       Examples:  10 - Pass, juggling, etc.


IV.  Sport organized activities

             Floor hockey, soccer, basketball and softball drills, basic handling of the ball and other                          


V.  Rhythmics

            Introduction to square dance

Ask Dr. Susan